Alcohol have the ability to cross placenta and it will affect the growing fetus. Drinking alcohol during pregnancy time could cause mental disabilities in the fetus. Alcohol abuse by pregnant mother during gustatory period leads to foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in fetus which shows life-long effect in child. So, it is better to totally avoid drinking alcohol during gustatory period. The children affected by FASD exhibit many physical challenges, that child may have small size head and abnormal facial features, smooth philtrum and these children are very poor in judgment, exhibit poor learning ability and high level of ADHD with low intelligence. These adverse effects persist in adult stage also. For the development of organ in fetus they have stipulated time, that is called critical/sensitive period. Some recent research over gestation and alcohol use in primates clearly states that alcohol abuse during 19/20th day of gestation will results in growth defects specially cause facial abnormalities.
Over use of over-the-counter, illegal drugs, even the prescribed drugs, would cause severe effects during pregnancy. Consumption of illegal drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine by carrying woman cause numerous physical and mental illness in the developing fetus some important defects are premature birth, birth of child with underweight, behavioural issues, low attention, and the infant become addicted to that particular drug from birth itself. Streptomycin, tetracycline, progestin and synthetic estrogen (birth control pills), accutane, thalidomide, and diethylstilbestrol are the common medicines used by all to treat various illness can cause teratogenic effects in fetus. Use of the drug thalidomide by pregnant mother will cause some physical deformities and damage the internal organs in developing fetus. Exposure to diethylstilbestrol in prenatal stage cause maternal and foetal bleeding. Class â€˜Xâ€™ drugs are dangerous teratogenic agents.
Tobacco smoking is also one of the teratogens due to the ability of nicotine to travel across the placenta and enters the fetus. Smoking character of pregnant woman will reduce blood oxygen concentration to developing fetus, sometimes leads to premature birth and still birth. Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the disorder in which the child died less than one year is also because of smoking character of pregnant woman. Inattentiveness, muscle tension in child and colic in childâ€™s are also happens because of prenatal exposure to nicotine.
Radiation, environmental pollution, and some infectious disease are some other teratogens. Prolonged exposure/undergoing excessive dose of pregnant mother to Radiation increases the chance of childhood cancer and cause emotional and behavioural disorders in infants. Thatâ€™s why it is better to avoid undergoing x-ray check-up or screening during pregnancy unless X-ray diagnosis is essential. Continuous exposure to some chemical pollutants like mercury or PCBs exposure can cause physical deformities, disability in speech, and difficulty in coordination of physical activities. If pregnant mother got infected by any sexually transmittable diseases, viral infection like Hepatitis, or parasite infections can cause severe adverse effects in fetus, and cause damage to brain development in fetus even leads to death also.
Depression and Stress
Prenatal stressful experience by pregnant mother will cause negative effects on foetal development, and it induce disorders both in mother and child. Due to stress many physiological changes take place in the body of mother like changes in hormonal and enzyme secretion which will bring harmful changes in the developing fetus. Stressed mother has more possibility engage herself in alcohol abuse, drug abuse smoking which will form harmful effects in fetus.
Pregnant women who works in the agricultural fields and who are working as landscape artists are at high risk of pesticide exposure. Increased exposure to harmful chemical pesticides increases miscarriages, birth of underweight child, it will affect fertility of mother, and reduce fecundity also.
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