Oviparity is a mode of reproduction where offspring develop outside the parental body. Here fertilization of the egg can happen either externally or internally but the new one will hatch outside the body. However, in some animals, there may occur little embryonic development inside the mother or the parent. This mode of reproduction is common among birds, reptiles, amphibians, and snakes. Animals, which exhibit oviparity are known as the oviparous animals. The number of eggs laying may vary from one to numerous. Many amphibians and snakes lay more eggs such the offsprings hatch out, and survive against predators, which are more in number. However, some other groups of animals like reptiles lay a fewer number of eggs, maybe only one, but it is with the very thick shell to protect their offspring from the climate changes and predators. For oviparous animals, the nutrients and necessary items for the offspring are distributed from the egg yolk. The egg protein vitellogenin is the main energy provider for the developing embryo. The important immunoglobulin and hormones are also supplied from the egg yolk. So, the egg size and duration of hatching time are correlated with each other to ensure the quality of the progeny. This whole process of feeding the new one using the egg yolk is called lecithotrophic.
Internal and external fertilization
Fertilization, which is the male and female gametesâ€™ fusion can be either internal or external. In internal fertilization, the deposition of the sperms by the males is done inside the female genital tract. The sperm fuses with the egg and fertilization can occur internally. The fertilized egg, which has the zygote, later is released from the body and the development of the whole organism occurs outside the body. This happens in the case of internal fertilization. In contrast, in some animals like fish, the unfertilized egg would be released outside the body and this is followed by the fusion of the sperm with the egg. This is known as external fertilization as the process of fertilization occurs outside the body. Traditionally, this was known as oviparity. Examples for common oviparous animals:
Most of the birds, amphibians, reptiles, and snakes will come under oviparous animals. Birds lay a fewer number of eggs with a hard shell. After getting the correct temperature for a specified duration, the young ones hatch from the shell. Unlike birds, reptiles have a very soft shell for their eggs and to get the warmth, instead of keeping it in a nest, they bury the eggs under the soil. This method of burying the eggs under the soil is important in determining the sex of the young one since the intensity of temperature getting to the egg can determine the sex of the offsprings of reptiles. Fishes usually exhibit external fertilization, that is, both male and female fishes lay their egg in the external world from where both the gametes meet each other and get fertilized. Amphibians also exhibit external fertilization and the offsprings are in the larval stage for a specified duration and get matured after the process of metamorphosis.
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