Trends in Paleobiology
Paleobiology is one of the new disciplines that combines the findings and methods of life science and Biology with paleontology. Any research based on Paleobiology makes use of the biological field research from current biota and fossils that are million years old. The Paleobiology answers questions about the evolutionary history of life, molecular evolution, and anatomical evolution by critically analyzing trace fossils, macrofossils, and microfossils. However, recently during the 21st century, biochemical analysis on genetic material is also used for biometric construction of phylogenetic trees in Paleobiology. The difference between paleontology and Paleobiology is that paleontology is the study of fossils, whereas paleobiology is the study of the Biology of the fossils.
History of Paleobiology: The history of Paleobiology attempts to understand the history of life on Earth by analyzing the fossil records and Biology of those fossil records left behind by the living forms. During ancient days, Xenophanes, a Greek philosopher, and religious critic, and Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian (480 BC) studied and recorded the fossils of some marine organisms and wrote that the land was under the water once. The systematic study about fossils emerged during early modern Europe and the nature of the fossils were better understood during the seventeenth and eighteenth century. In the year 1822, the term “Paleontology” was used for the first time in a French scientific journal. During the 19th century, studies about fossils became tremendous and museums that exhibited fossils also increased in number. All these factors led to the rapid rise in knowledge, which led to a geological time scale.
During the eighteenth century, several paleobiologists like Georges Cuvier presented paper drawings of the observations made from fossils. In 1796, he observed living animals and fossilized animals like mammoths and Indian elephants and used them for comparative anatomy. For the very first time, he established that the African elephant and the Indian elephant were two different species. He also published that both these species were different from the mammoth, which became extinct. The following figure shows the drawing of the tusk of the mammoth by Cuvier
Further investigations and studies by various paleontologists led to the creation of a geological time scale. The geological time scale is the chronological sequence of various happening on Earth including the evolution and extinction of organisms including both plants and animals during a specific period.
Different fields in Paleobiology
Paleobiology is a wide field and includes several sub-fields in it. Paleobotany is the branch of Paleobiology, which includes the investigation of fossils governing flora, green plants, and also fungi and seaweeds. Paleozoology is the branch of Paleobiology, which includes methods and principles for investigating fauna of both vertebrates and invertebrates. Paleobiology includes examining the evolutionary history of the various virus on the biological timescale. Micropaleontology includes paleobiologic principles on microbes like bacteria, archaea, and other protists. Molecular evidence about the ancient life of both microscopic and macroscopic living forms is analyzed in Paleobiology and such a study is known as paleo biochemistry. Paleoecology is another interesting field in Paleobiology, which involves examining and studying the climate, ecosystem, and geographies of ancient and prehistoric life. Paleobiology also includes the study and investigation of the trails, burrows, borings, impressions, and other trace fossils that are left behind by the prehistoric organisms. The study about these helps to improve knowledge about the ecology and habitat of an ancient organism. This type of study is known as paleoichnology. To know about the behavior and death of the fossilized animal, decay and decomposition of the fossils are studies and this field of Paleobiology is known as Taphonomy.
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