Eysenckâ€™s model of personality
Psychologist Hans Eysenck employed factor analysis to understand and unravel personality traits. He added to this method by using personality tests and more scientifically sound experimental studies that addressed many variables.
Eysenck came up with a model based on peopleâ€™s personality traits that had a genetic predisposition, having physiological and psychological roots. The three major traits or dimensions that met these criteria were psychoticism (P), extraversion-introversion (E), and neuroticism-emotional stability (N). Together, they are easily remembered through the acronym PEN. These three dimensions may be referred to as super factors.
Based on his research, Eysenck put forth the idea that the super factors and traits tend to remain stable throughout an individualâ€™s life. They remain so, across countless life experiences, both socially and environmentally. For instance, a child with an introverted temperament is more likely to remain introverted even later on in life.
Characteristics of neuroticism
There are quite a few traits that make up this dimension. Neurotics are said to be anxiety-prone, dejected, tense, unreasonable, and moody. They might be prone to low self-esteem and may feel guilty, often and easily. Eysenck argued that this trait is mostly inherited, which means that it is a consequence of genetics and not a consequence of experience or learning. It is made visible via traits that may be different, both in terms of behavior and biology, for those at the relatively emotionally stable and high functioning end of this dimension.
Studies conducted in the United States highlight that accumulated satisfaction and fulfillment that we get from engaging in our relationships and work are tied in with a lesser likelihood of neuroticism traits and a greater likelihood for extraversion traits. Researchers in Australia highlighted that individuals who score high in this dimension performed better in a fast-paced and stressful environment than individuals who scored less. Simply put, it highlighted that neurotics tend to perform and function better in situations that push them. Another British study showed that people who are high scorers in this dimension had poorer verbal abilities. Finally, research on more than 4,000 individuals in Sweden found that people who score high in this dimension in middle age are more likely to have the onset of cognitive impairments later in their life.
Moreover, it has also been seen that neurotics experience greater emotional arousal and greater trouble in the process of returning to normalcy after an emotionally arousing event. High scorers also stay angry for relatively long periods after a perceived transgression. They are relatively less likely to forgive someone whom they perceive as someone who has violated them. They also are more prone to be vigilant to threats, specifically social threats such as the possibility of being socially excluded. On the other hand, someone who scores low on neuroticism is emotionally stable, calmer, even-tempered, slower to react to stressful events, and likely returns to their normal self quickly after an upsetting event.
Biology of neuroticism
People who score high in this dimension seem to exhibit a higher degree of activity in the sections of their brain that regulate the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system. In some sense, this is the alarm system of our body; it responds to stress-inducing and threatening events by increasing the breathing rate, pulse, affecting the flow of blood, and releasing adrenaline. Eysenck suggested that in neurotic individuals, the sympathetic branch becomes chronically hypersensitive to even milder stressors, resulting in increased levels of emotionality. This explains why neurotics tend to react very emotionally to events that others may consider relatively insignificant. Eysenck argued that such biological differences are inborn. People are predisposed genetically either towards emotional instability or towards emotional stability.
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