The digestive system of Urochordate starts with gills slits called stigmata that are used in filter-feeding. This traps the food in mucus. The food tube is very short and â€˜U-shaped ends with anus found in proximity to the atrial siphon.
The digestive system of the lancelets is composed of a simple tube-like structure the runs from the pharynx to the anus. A single binding of caecum bifurcates under the gut with the lining that engulfs the solid food particles. The other body organs are encapsulated within an epicardium that is surrounded by mesenchyme called a visceral cavity.
The cavity of the viscera is small and most of the space in the tunicate is taken by the cavity of the atrium. This cavity consists of the pharynx having numerous pores like structures (slits). The tunicates are fed by withdrawing the water via inhalant siphon. Water is now passed along the pharynx. In the process, the small particles get filtered and reach the exhalant siphon.
The atrium surrounds the pharynx both on lateral and dorsal sides. The water flow is maintained by the ciliary structures that force the water outside the atrial cavity by muscle contraction. The small particles are filtered by the mucous layer. The oral cavity has margins that are lined with tentacles. These tentacles help in preventing the large particles from being entered into the pharynx. Many pharyngeal slits are perforated in the pharynx.
The Circulatory System of Urochordate
The circulatory system of tunicates is composed of the heart in the basal region of the pharynx. One of the two blood vessels from the heart anteriorly runs below the endostyle. The other vessel goes in the posterior part and reaches the digestive organs and gonadal regions. The tunicates possess bidirectional blood flow in the heart.
The peristaltic movements in the heart propel the blood in one direction and then get reversed. The reversal movement is not well understood. The blood plasma of tunicates is colorless that contains various types of amoeboid cells. The blood is circulated through the body by many spaces (sinuses) found in the mesenchyme that surrounds the viscera. These are false blood vessels and the tunicateâ€™s blood is generally very clear that possesses a high content of vanadium.
In suborder (includes Ascidians and Thaliaceans) the pharyngeal cilia beating creates water current and as water is driven in the branchial sac inside the atrial cavity the mucus membrane that is secreted by the endostyle filters variety of small organisms that is found suspended during water current.
Now the mucus membrane gets rolled into a cord and then conveyed into the intestine where it is digested and further absorbed. The intestine ends in the anal region that is found below the atrial aperture. The waste materials are excreted by the anus in the water stream.
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