Excretory system in birds:
To maintain the osmotic balance in the avian body, water acts as a vital substance. The birds get the necessary amount of water by drinking, from the food they consume, via fruits, and those birds in the drylands receive water via cactus plants like Carnegiea gigantean.
The excretory system varies according to the species. Vertebrates have an organized excretory system with kidneys. Earthworms possess nephridia, flame cells are present in the case of planaria, crustaceans like prawn have green glands.
The excretory system of birds includes kidneys, gastrointestinal gland secretions, salt glands in the case of water birds, and water loss may occur through its lungs. It does not possess sweat glands.
The urinary system of birds consists of a pair of kidneys, a unique opening called the cloaca, and ureter. Unlike humans, it does not have a urinary bladder.
The kidneys are divided into characteristic lobes referred to as the cranial lobe, middle lobe, and caudal lobe. These lobes are distinguished into cortex which is the outer region and the medulla the innermost region. The lobes consist of many small structures called lobules.
The kidney consists of several nephrons, which are its functional unit. These functional units are of two types â€“ Reptilian type (does not possess Henleâ€™s loop) and mammalian type (possesses the long size and medium size loops).
The nephrons consist of several parts like the bowmanâ€™s capsule, glomerulus, afferent and efferent arteriole, distal convoluted tube, proximal convoluted tube, Henleâ€™s loop, collecting duct, and vasa recta.
The blood enters the nephrons via the afferent arterioles, which reaches the glomerulus.
The glomerulus filters the blood and the filtrate (contains plasma mainly and not proteins) obtained this way is absorbed by the bowmanâ€™s capsule. This filtration process occurs due to high pressure.
The proximal tube functions mainly as a re-absorbent and picks up the vitamins and glucose, thus reabsorbing the maximum amount of substances.
Birds produce concentrated urine osmotically and its concentration is higher than that of the concentration in its plasma.
But, since a part of the nephrons are loopless, the water content in the urine of birds is higher, that is, it is not concentrated when compared to the mammals. To fix this, hormones and other glands come to the aid.
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