Unique skeletons, made by a crystallized form of silica, are strikingly beautiful and unusual structures that happen to be their most significant morphological characteristic. A few of their notable structural characteristics include the following:
The radiolarians can range from 30 microns to 2 millimeters approximately in their diameter.
Radiolarians mostly are spheres in their symmetry known for their beautifully sculptured skeletons, also referred to as â€˜Testsâ€™- a shell-like loosely bound structure made by protozoans.
These tests are usually composed of silica and perforated elaborately into a wide variety of patterns. These patterns often form a series of lattice-shaped plates or needle-shaped spicules.
The radiolarians have these skeletons that typically possess arm-like extensions often resembling spikes. These are mostly used by them to increase their surface area for floatation purposes and also for capturing prey.
Along with spikes, some radiolarians have pseudopodia like structures protruding through their perforated skeleton, providing them protection from dissolution in water as well as for prey capture.
In many of the radiolarians, the outer spikes fuse to form an external skeleton called â€˜Cortical shell,â€™ which servers primarily to strengthen their assembly.
Classification and Types:
The term â€˜radiolariaâ€™ comes from the word radial symmetry, characterized by their radial skeletal spines. However, not all forms of radiolarians exhibit radial symmetry.
Radiolarians can broadly be classified into two groups:
Polycystines â€“ these are the types of radiolarians that are formed with solid skeletal elements.
Phaedarias â€“ these are the types of radiolarians that are formed with hollow skeletal elements.
Polycystines have been studied extensively and can further be divided into two major groups:
Pumullaria â€“ these are the groups of organisms that mostly possess radial symmetry and are typically spherical shaped. They have also been found to have concentric shells present.
Nassellaria â€“ these are the groups of organisms that typically have shapes deriving from simple spike-like structures. This group includes the conical-shaped radiolarians as well.
Biology and Behavior:
Radiolarians form a fascinating group of marine organisms that are primitive yet highly diverse. Their biological attributes include the following:
The radiolarians typically form a chitinous central capsule that is enclosed in a membrane dividing their cytoplasm into an inner layer called endoplasm and an outer layer called ectoplasm or calymma.
They are single-celled and contain a nucleus along with other cellular organelles, including mitochondria, which is the respiratory organelle, digestive vacuoles, and also Golgi bodies, which act as the secretory organelle.
Vital processes like respiration, all synthetic biochemical processes, as well as reproduction are executed in the central capsule.
The vacuoles are often engaged to help in controlling the buoyancy, while pseudopodia help in capturing prey.
They derive their nutrition from a variety of organisms, including phytoplankton and small zooplankton. Some of the radiolarians also establish symbiotic relationships with different algal population for deriving energy, while sheltering them.
They act as the base of the food chain by providing nourishment to the higher organisms.
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