The data about circulation suggest that about 60% of the total volume of the blood present in the human body is found in the veins. The blood that the veins carry is known as a reservoir as it can be transported to increase the cardiac output and also mediate the systemic arterial pressure when there is a physiological demand. Deep learning of the physiological functions of the veins requires an understanding of the cardiovascular system and its integration with other systems. The autonomic nervous system controls the vascular compliance of the veins that in turn controls the sympathetic nervous system fibers on the synapse level.
The effect of activation of the sympathetic system in the blood vessels is that it restricts the blood vessels of the arterioles and the arteries. This increases the vascular resistance which in turn increases the pressure in the atrium. The sympathetic system-induced constriction of the blood vessels reduces the volume of the blood and the venous compliance and thereby raises the venous pressure. The effect of the sympathetic stimulation in its entirety results in the rise in the cardiac output which also increases the venous return. It also raises the systemic vascular resistance and the blood pressure of the atrium. There should be an increased sympathetic stimulation during exercise, hemorrhagic shock, and emotional stress to cope up with the proper cardiac functioning.
As mentioned above that around 60% of the blood present in the circulation is carried by the veins, they are very compliant and the entire venous system functions as a reservoir of blood. This pumps the blood whenever needed. When there is blood loss from the body, the pressure in the arteries begins to drop. This results in the activation of nervous signals from the carotid sinus region and also other pressure sites present in the circulation. These signals, in turn, activates the regions of the brain and spinal cord, and in return, the information from these two regions comes to the veins via the sympathetic nervous system. This causes the veins to constrict. This is the most important emergency response elicited by the veins in collaboration with the nervous system. Therefore, even if around 20% of the total volume of the blood is lost, the circulatory system still functions normally because of the variable nature of the veins that function as a reservoir of blood. There are many other regions of the circulatory system that comply with the veins to act as the specific blood reservoir. They are the spleen that liberates around 100 ml of blood to the surrounding areas, the large abdominal veins that release around 300 ml blood, the liver and especially the sinuses liberate more than 100 ml into the regions of circulation if needed and finally the venous plexus situated below the skin also contributes more than 100 ml. Also, during the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, the heart shrinks propelling about 100 ml of blood. Hence, the heart and lungs can also be considered as a reservoir of blood-based on the circulation.
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