In response to a biological process a particular gene or a group of genes expresses itself in a particular pattern with the cell, these genes are called the signature genes, or the process is known as signature gene expression. In cancer treatment by radiotherapy, identification of the signature genes can be done by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis in which the gene expression of fluorescent-tagged samples is screened with DNA probes to find the appropriate signature genes.
In the radiotherapy treatment where the tumor cells or cancer cells are destroyed, identification of the signature gene or the signature gene expression that is responsible for the tumor induction is an important factor to give proper treatment. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) microarray analysis is a method that is a widely used technique to analyze thousands of gene expression simultaneously at the molecular level. The technique involves a microarray chip in which the surface of the chip is embedded with thousands of gene representatives or oligonucleotides as DNA probes. A comparative study is done in which the fluorescently tagged cDNA of normal cells and tumor cells are allowed to co-hybridize with the numerous DNA probes on the chip. Based on the high-resolution fluorescent signal produced the signature genes that are responsible for the cancer is determined. The DNA microarray analysis of the signature genes is used before and after radiotherapy treatment to understand the tumor type, its proliferation, reoccurrence, subtype, and the therapeutic effect of the radiation on the tumor cells, as the tumor cells may be radiosensitive or radio-resistive in nature-based upon the type of cancer treated. To obtain a proper diagnosis and treatment DNA microarray analysis can be coupled in the radiotherapy treatment.
The uncontrolled or abnormal cell growth by mutation of the genes leads to cancer progression gradually within the cells. One of the major treatments done for cancer is radiotherapy in which the constantly proliferating cell growth is either inhibited in vivo or subjected to apoptosis in vitro under the influence of the radiation emitted. However, treatment for cancer by radiation therapy may exhibit inefficiency in times based on the sensitivity of the cells towards the radiation.
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