Types of isolation
There are five types of isolation that prevents interbreeding of two species. They are:
Temporal isolation: It occurs when species that possess the ability to interbreed could not do so because of the difference in the breeding time. It can be due to the difference in the time during day, year or anything between the two.
Behavioral isolation: Due to different rituals followed by different species, mating could not happen. This is the most common cause of isolation in animals. For example, some species of crickets are barred from mating due to their specific choice of mating song produced by the males. They will only mate the male individuals producing a particular song for mating.
Mechanical or chemical isolation: This type of isolation can be explained by the following example. In some type flowering plants, its shape matches with that of natural pollinators. Those plants which do not possess the exact shape in order for the pollination to take place will not get any pollen from the pollinators. Similarly, there are few chemical barriers that stop the formation of gametes allowing the sperms from only some specific species to fertilize the ovum. In this way, mechanical or chemical barriers isolate the species from mating with one another freely.
Geographical isolation: These are physical barriers preventing two species from mating. For example, monkey inhabiting on one island cannot mate with the monkey living on some other island because of the water and distance that keeps them apart and make breeding impossible for them.
Ecological isolation: This type of isolation occurs when two species having the ability to interbreed could not do so because they inhabit the different locations in same geographical area. For example, lions and tigers living in India can mate with each other but cannot do so because they both live in different areas i.e., grasslands and forests respectively. Due to this reason, it becomes impossible for them to encounter each other. Each one of them is isolated from the other.
Premating and postmating prezygotic isolation
Prezygotic isolation prevents the eggs from fertilizing and consists of habitat isolation, mechanical isolation, behavioral isolation, mating seasons, and gamete isolation. In postzygotic isolation formation of fertile offspring is prevented and includes hybrid unviability, hybrid sterility and hybrid “breakdown.” Premating prezygotic isolation includes ecological isolation as one of its types.
The blackbird and ring ouzel bird belong to the genus Turdus and are very closely related species. Blackbirds inhabit woodlands while ring ouzel inhabit moorlands and are prevented from mating due to difference in the ecological parts of same geographical area.
Northern red-legged frogs are prevented from mating with American bullfrogs since the red-legged frogs reproduce in the environment having fast-moving, ephemeral water streams whereas the latter inhabit and mate in permanent ponds.
Crucifix toad and desert tree frog both live in desert environment having overlapping range of geographical areas but still cannot mate because the former lives in ground (fossorial) hence comes out only during rains and the latter is arboreal in nature.
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