political history discussion

U.S. History

SENIOR CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS P.SCOTT CORBETT, VENTURA COLLEGE VOLKER JANSSEN, CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY AT FULLERTON JOHN M. LUND, KEENE STATE COLLEGE TODD PFANNESTIEL, CLARION UNIVERSITY PAUL VICKERY, ORAL ROBERTS UNIVERSITY

 

 

 

 

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Table of Contents Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

1.1 The Americas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1.3 West Africa and the Role of Slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Chapter 2: Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.1 Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2 Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.3 Challenges to Spain’s Supremacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.4 New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange . . . . 52

Chapter 3: Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Spanish Exploration and Colonial Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3.2 Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 3.3 English Settlements in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 3.4 The Impact of Colonization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.1 Charles II and the Restoration Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4.2 The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.3 An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4.4 Great Awakening and Enlightenment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 4.5 Wars for Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Chapter 5: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 5.1 Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War . . . . . . 126 5.2 The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 5.3 The Townshend Acts and Colonial Protest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 5.4 The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 5.5 Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity . . . . . . . . . . . 147

Chapter 6: America’s War for Independence, 1775-1783 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 6.1 Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 6.2 The Early Years of the Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 6.3 War in the South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 6.4 Identity during the American Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 7.1 Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7.2 How Much Revolutionary Change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 7.3 Debating Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 7.4 The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 8.1 Competing Visions: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 8.2 The New American Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 8.3 Partisan Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 8.4 The United States Goes Back to War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Chapter 9: Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 9.1 Early Industrialization in the Northeast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 9.2 A Vibrant Capitalist Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 9.3 On the Move: The Transportation Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 9.4 A New Social Order: Class Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263

Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820–1840 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 10.1 A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson . . . . . . . . . 274 10.2 The Rise of American Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

 

 

10.3 The Nullification Crisis and the Bank War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 10.4 Indian Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 10.5 The Tyranny and Triumph of the Majority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293

Chapter 11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 11.1 Lewis and Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 11.2 The Missouri Crisis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 11.3 Independence for Texas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 11.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 11.5 Free Soil or Slave? The Dilemma of the West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

Chapter 12: Cotton is King: The Antebellum South, 1800–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 12.1 The Economics of Cotton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 12.2 African Americans in the Antebellum United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 12.3 Wealth and Culture in the South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 12.4 The Filibuster and the Quest for New Slave States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354

Chapter 13: Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820–1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361 13.1 An Awakening of Religion and Individualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 13.2 Antebellum Communal Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 13.3 Reforms to Human Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 13.4 Addressing Slavery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377 13.5 Women’s Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382

Chapter 14: Troubled Times: the Tumultuous 1850s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389 14.1 The Compromise of 1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 14.2 The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Republican Party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399 14.3 The Dred Scott Decision and Sectional Strife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 14.4 John Brown and the Election of 1860 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 411

Chapter 15: The Civil War, 1860–1865 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 419 15.1 The Origins and Outbreak of the Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 15.2 Early Mobilization and War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 15.3 1863: The Changing Nature of the War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 15.4 The Union Triumphant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440

Chapter 16: The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451 16.1 Restoring the Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 16.2 Congress and the Remaking of the South, 1865–1866 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 16.3 Radical Reconstruction, 1867–1872 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 460 16.4 The Collapse of Reconstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468

Chapter 17: Go West Young Man! Westward Expansion, 1840-1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 17.1 The Westward Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 17.2 Homesteading: Dreams and Realities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 17.3 Making a Living in Gold and Cattle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 17.4 The Loss of American Indian Life and Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496 17.5 The Impact of Expansion on Chinese Immigrants and Hispanic Citizens . . . . . . . . 501

Chapter 18: Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business, 1870-1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509 18.1 Inventors of the Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 18.2 From Invention to Industrial Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515 18.3 Building Industrial America on the Backs of Labor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 18.4 A New American Consumer Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531

Chapter 19: The Growing Pains of Urbanization, 1870-1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 19.1 Urbanization and Its Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 19.2 The African American “Great Migration” and New European Immigration . . . . . . . 548 19.3 Relief from the Chaos of Urban Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 553 19.4 Change Reflected in Thought and Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561

Chapter 20: Politics in the Gilded Age, 1870-1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571

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20.1 Political Corruption in Postbellum America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 20.2 The Key Political Issues: Patronage, Tariffs, and Gold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 20.3 Farmers Revolt in the Populist Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 20.4 Social and Labor Unrest in the 1890s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591

Chapter 21: Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601 21.1 The Origins of the Progressive Spirit in America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602 21.2 Progressivism at the Grassroots Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 21.3 New Voices for Women and African Americans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 21.4 Progressivism in the White House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619

Chapter 22: Age of Empire: American Foreign Policy, 1890-1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 633 22.1 Turner, Mahan, and the Roots of Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 634 22.2 The Spanish-American War and Overseas Empire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 640 22.3 Economic Imperialism in East Asia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 22.4 Roosevelt’s “Big Stick” Foreign Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 650 22.5 Taft’s “Dollar Diplomacy” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655

Chapter 23: Americans and the Great War, 1914-1919 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 23.1 American Isolationism and the European Origins of War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 662 23.2 The United States Prepares for War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 668 23.3 A New Home Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 673 23.4 From War to Peace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678 23.5 Demobilization and Its Difficult Aftermath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 684

Chapter 24: The Jazz Age: Redefining the Nation, 1919-1929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 24.1 Prosperity and the Production of Popular Entertainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 694 24.2 Transformation and Backlash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 24.3 A New Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 707 24.4 Republican Ascendancy: Politics in the 1920s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 715

Chapter 25: Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The Great Depression, 1929-1932 . . . . . . . . 723 25.1 The Stock Market Crash of 1929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 724 25.2 President Hoover’s Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 735 25.3 The Depths of the Great Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 25.4 Assessing the Hoover Years on the Eve of the New Deal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748

Chapter 26: Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 26.1 The Rise of Franklin Roosevelt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 758 26.2 The First New Deal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 762 26.3 The Second New Deal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 771

Chapter 27: Fighting the Good Fight in World War II, 1941-1945 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 787 27.1 The Origins of War: Europe, Asia, and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 27.2 The Home Front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 27.3 Victory in the European Theater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 807 27.4 The Pacific Theater and the Atomic Bomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812

Chapter 28: Post-War Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945-1960 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 28.1 The Challenges of Peacetime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 822 28.2 The Cold War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 28.3 The American Dream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 834 28.4 Popular Culture and Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 840 28.5 The African American Struggle for Civil Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 843

Chapter 29: Contesting Futures: America in the 1960s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855 29.1 The Kennedy Promise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 856 29.2 Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863 29.3 The Civil Rights Movement Marches On . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869 29.4 Challenging the Status Quo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878

Chapter 30: Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968-1980 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 885

 

 

30.1 Identity Politics in a Fractured Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886 30.2 Coming Apart, Coming Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 893 30.3 Vietnam: The Downward Spiral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 30.4 Watergate: Nixon’s Domestic Nightmare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 906 30.5 Jimmy Carter in the Aftermath of the Storm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911

Chapter 31: From Cold War to Culture Wars, 1980-2000 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919 31.1 The Reagan Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 31.2 Political and Cultural Fusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 31.3 A New World Order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931 31.4 Bill Clinton and the New Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 937

Chapter 32: The Challenges of the Twenty-First Century . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 951 32.1 The War on Terror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 952 32.2 The Domestic Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 958 32.3 New Century, Old Disputes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965 32.4 Hope and Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 970

Appendix A: The Declaration of Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 983 Appendix B: The Constitution of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 987 Appendix C: Presidents of the United States of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1003 Appendix D: U.S. Political Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1007 Appendix E: U.S. Topographical Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1009 Appendix F: United States Population Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1011 Appendix G: Further Reading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1013 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033

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Preface

Welcome to U.S. History, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

ABOUT OPENSTAX OpenStax is a nonprofit based at Rice University, and it’s our mission to improve student access to education. Our first openly licensed college textbook was published in 2012, and our library has since scaled to over 25 books for college and AP® courses used by hundreds of thousands of students. OpenStax Tutor, our low-cost personalized learning tool, is being used in college courses throughout the country. Through our partnerships with philanthropic foundations and our alliance with other educational resource organizations, OpenStax is breaking down the most common barriers to learning and empowering students and instructors to succeed.

ABOUT OPENSTAX RESOURCES Customization U.S. History is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY) license, which means that you can distribute, remix, and build upon the content, as long as you provide attribution to OpenStax and its content contributors.

Because our books are openly licensed, you are free to use the entire book or pick and choose the sections that are most relevant to the needs of your course. Feel free to remix the content by assigning your students certain chapters and sections in your syllabus, in the order that you prefer. You can even provide a direct link in your syllabus to the sections in the web view of your book.

Instructors also have the option of creating a customized version of their OpenStax book. The custom version can be made available to students in low-cost print or digital form through their campus bookstore. Visit your book page on OpenStax.org for more information.

Errata All OpenStax textbooks undergo a rigorous review process. However, like any professional-grade textbook, errors sometimes occur. Since our books are web based, we can make updates periodically when deemed pedagogically necessary. If you have a correction to suggest, submit it through the link on your book page on OpenStax.org. Subject matter experts review all errata suggestions. OpenStax is committed to remaining transparent about all updates, so you will also find a list of past errata changes on your book page on OpenStax.org.

Format You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through OpenStax.org, and in low-cost print and iBooks editions.

ABOUT U.S. HISTORY U.S. History is designed to meet the scope and sequence requirements of most introductory courses. The text provides a balanced approach to U.S. history, considering the people, events, and ideas that have shaped the United States from both the top down (politics, economics, diplomacy) and bottom up (eyewitness accounts, lived experience). U.S. History covers key forces that form the American experience, with particular attention to issues of race, class, and gender.

Coverage and scope To develop U.S. History, we solicited ideas from historians at all levels of higher education, from community colleges to PhD-granting universities. They told us about their courses, students, challenges, resources, and how a textbook can best meet the needs of them and their students.The result is a book that covers the breadth of the chronological history of the United States and also provides the necessary depth

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to ensure the course is manageable for instructors and students alike.

The pedagogical choices, chapter arrangements, and learning objective fulfillment were developed and vetted with feedback from educators dedicated to the project. They thoroughly read the material and offered critical and detailed commentary. Reviewer feedback centered around achieving equilibrium between the various political, social, and cultural dynamics that permeate history.

While the book is organized primarily chronologically, as needed, material treating different topics or regions over the same time period is spread over multiple chapters. For example, chapters 9, 11, and 12 look at economic, political, social, and cultural developments during the first half of the eighteenth century in the North, West, and South respectively, while chapters 18 to 20 closely examine industrialization, urbanization, and politics in the period after Reconstruction.

Chapter 1: The Americas, Europe, and Africa before 1492 Chapter 2: Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650 Chapter 3: Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700 Chapter 4: Rule Britannia! The English Empire, 1660–1763 Chapter 5: Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763–1774 Chapter 6: America’s War for Independence, 1775–1783 Chapter 7: Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790 Chapter 8: Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1815 Chapter 9: Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850 Chapter 10: Jacksonian Democracy, 1820–1840 Chapter 11: A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1850 Chapter 12: Cotton is King: The Antebellum South, 1800–1860 Chapter 13: Antebellum Idealism and Reform Impulses, 1820–1860 Chapter 14: Troubled Times: The Tumultuous 1850s Chapter 15: The Civil War, 1860–1865 Chapter 16: The Era of Reconstruction, 1865–1877 Chapter 17: Go West Young Man! Westward Expansion, 1840–1900 Chapter 18: Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business, 1870–1900 Chapter 19: The Growing Pains of Urbanization, 1870–1900 Chapter 20: Politics in the Gilded Age, 1870–1900 Chapter 21: Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890–1920 Chapter 22: Age of Empire: Modern American Foreign Policy, 1890–1914 Chapter 23: Americans and the Great War, 1914–1919 Chapter 24: The Jazz Age: Redefining the Nation, 1919–1929 Chapter 25: Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? The Great Depression, 1929–1932 Chapter 26: Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932–1941 Chapter 27: Fighting the Good Fight in World War II, 1941–1945 Chapter 28: Postwar Prosperity and Cold War Fears, 1945–1960 Chapter 29: Contesting Futures: America in the 1960s Chapter 30: Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968–1980 Chapter 31: From Cold War to Culture Wars, 1980–2000 Chapter 32: The Challenges of the Twenty-First Century Appendix A: The Declaration of Independence Appendix B: The Constitution of the United States Appendix C: Presidents of the United States Appendix D: United States Political Map Appendix E: United States Topographical Map Appendix F: United States Population Chart Appendix G: Suggested Reading

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Pedagogical foundation U.S. History features material that takes topics one step further to engage students in historical inquiry.Our features include:

Americana. This feature explores the significance of artifacts from American pop culture and considers what values, views, and philosophies are reflected in these objects.

Defining “American”. This feature analyzes primary sources, including documents, speeches, and other writings, to consider important issues of the day while keeping a focus on the theme of what it means to be American.

My Story. This feature presents first-person accounts (diaries, interviews, letters) of significant or exceptional events from the American experience.

Link It Up. This feature is a very brief introduction to a website with an interactive experience, video, or primary sources that help improve student understanding of the material.

Questions for each level of learning U.S. History offers two types of end-of-module questions for students:

Review Questions are simple recall questions from each module in the chapter and are in either multiple-choice or open-response format. The answers can be looked up in the text.

Critical Thinking Questions are higher-level, conceptual questions that ask students to demonstrate their understanding by applying what they have learned in each module to the whole of the chapter. They ask for outside-the-box thinking and reasoning about the concepts pushing students to places they wouldn’t have thought of going themselves.

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES Student and instructor resources We’ve compiled additional resources for both students and instructors, including Getting Started Guides, an instructor solution guide, and PowerPoint slides. Instructor resources require a verified instructor account, which you can apply for when you log in or create your account on OpenStax.org. Take advantage of these resources to supplement your OpenStax book.

Community Hubs OpenStax partners with the Institute for the Study of Knowledge Management in Education (ISKME) to offer Community Hubs on OER Commons – a platform for instructors to share community-created resources that support OpenStax books, free of charge. Through our Community Hubs, instructors can upload their own materials or download resources to use in their own courses, including additional ancillaries, teaching material, multimedia, and relevant course content. We encourage instructors to join the hubs for the subjects most relevant to your teaching and research as an opportunity both to enrich your courses and to engage with other faculty.

To reach the Community Hubs, visit www.oercommons.org/hubs/OpenStax.

Partner resources OpenStax Partners are our allies in the mission to make high-quality learning materials affordable and accessible to students and instructors everywhere. Their tools integrate seamlessly with our OpenStax titles at a low cost. To access the partner resources for your text, visit your book page on OpenStax.org.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS Senior contributing authors P. Scott Corbett, Ventura College Dr. Corbett’s major fields of study are recent American history and American diplomatic history. He teaches a variety of courses at Ventura College, and he serves as an instructor at California State

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University’s Channel Islands campus. A passionate educator, Scott has also taught history to university students in Singapore and China.

Volker Janssen, California State University–Fullerton Born and raised in Germany, Dr. Janssen received his BA from the University of Hamburg and his MA and PhD from the University of California, San Diego. He is a former Fulbright scholar and an active member of Germany’s advanced studies foundation “Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes.” Volker currently serves as Associate Professor at California State University’s Fullerton campus, where he specializes in the social, economic, and institutional history of California, and more recently, the history of technology.

John M. Lund, Keene State College Dr. Lund’s primary research focuses on early American history, with a special interest in oaths, Colonial New England, and Atlantic legal cultures. John has over 20 years of teaching experience. In addition to working with students at Keene State College, he lectures at Franklin Pierce University, and serves the online learning community at Southern New Hampshire University.

Todd Pfannestiel, Clarion University Dr. Pfannestiel is a Professor in the history department of Clarion University in Pennsylvania, where he also holds the position of Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Todd has a strong history of service to his institution, its students, and the community that surrounds it.

Paul Vickery, Oral Roberts University Educating others is one of Dr. Vickery’s delights, whether in the classroom, through authoring books and articles, or via informal teaching during his travels. He is currently Professor of History at Oral Roberts University, where his emphasis is on the history of ideas, ethics, and the role of the church and theology in national development. Paul reads Portuguese, Italian, French, and Hebrew, and has taught on five continents.

Sylvie Waskiewicz, Lead Editor Dr. Waskiewicz received her BSBA from Georgetown University and her MA and PhD from the Institute of French Studies at New York University. With over 10 years of teaching experience in English and French history and language, Sylvie left academia to join the ranks of higher education publishing. She has spent the last eight years editing college textbooks and academic journals.

Reviewers Amy Bix, Iowa State University Edward Bond, Alabama A&M University Tammy Byron, Dalton State College Benjamin Carp, Brooklyn College, CUNY Sharon Deubreau, Rhodes State College Gene Fein, Fordham University Joel Franks, San Jose State University Raymond Frey, Centenary College Richard Gianni, Indiana University Northwest Larry Gragg, Missouri University of Science and Technology Laura Graves, South Plains College Elisa Guernsey, Monroe Community College Thomas Chase Hagood, University of Georgia Charlotte Haller, Worcester State University David Head, Spring Hill College Tamora Hoskisson, Salt Lake Community College Jean Keller, Palomar College Kathleen Kennedy, Missouri State University Mark Klobas, Scottsdale Community College Ann Kordas, Johnson & Wales University

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Stephanie Laffer, Miami International University of Art and Design Jennifer Lang, Delgado Community College Jennifer Lawrence, Tarrant County College Wendy Maier-Sarti, Oakton Community College Jim McIntyre, Moraine Valley Community College Marianne McKnight, Salt Lake Community College Brandon Morgan, Central New Mexico Community College Caryn Neumann, Miami University of Ohio Michelle Novak, Houston Community College Lisa Ossian, Des Moines Area Community College Paul Ringel, High Point University Jason Ripper, Everett Community College Silvana Siddali, Saint Louis University Brooks Simpson, Arizona State University Steven Smith, California State University, Fullerton David Trowbridge, Marshall University Eugene Van Sickle, University of North Georgia Hubert van Tuyll, Augusta State University

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Preface

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CHAPTER 1

The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492

Figure 1.1 In Europe supported by Africa and America (1796), artist William Blake, who was an abolitionist, depicts the interdependence of the three continents in the Atlantic World; however, he places gold armbands on the Indian and African women, symbolizing their subjugation. The strand binding the three women may represent tobacco.

Chapter Outline 1.1 The Americas 1.2 Europe on the Brink of Change 1.3 West Africa and the Role of Slavery

Introduction Globalization, the ever-increasing interconnectedness of the world, is not a new phenomenon, but it accelerated when western Europeans discovered the riches of the East. During the Crusades (1095–1291), Europeans developed an appetite for spices, silk, porcelain, sugar, and other luxury items from the East, for which they traded fur, timber, and Slavic people they captured and sold (hence the word slave). But when the Silk Road, the long overland trading route from China to the Mediterranean, became costlier and more dangerous to travel, Europeans searched for a more efficient and inexpensive trade route over water, initiating the development of what we now call the Atlantic World.

In pursuit of commerce in Asia, fifteenth-century traders unexpectedly encountered a “New World” populated by millions and home to sophisticated and numerous peoples. Mistakenly believing they had reached the East Indies, these early explorers called its inhabitants Indians. West Africa, a diverse and culturally rich area, soon entered the stage as other nations exploited its slave trade and brought its peoples to the New World in chains. Although Europeans would come to dominate the New World, they could not have done so without Africans and native peoples (Figure 1.1).

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1.1 The Americas

By the end of this section, you will be able to: • Locate on a map the major American civilizations before the arrival of the Spanish • Discuss the cultural achievements of these civilizations • Discuss the differences and similarities between lifestyles, religious practices, and

customs among the native peoples

Some scholars believe that between nine and fifteen thousand years ago, a land bridge existed between Asia and North America that we now call Beringia. The first inhabitants of what would be named the Americas migrated across this bridge in search of food. When the glaciers melted, water engulfed Beringia, and the Bering Strait was formed. Later settlers came by boat across the narrow strait. (The fact that Asians and American Indians share genetic markers on a Y chromosome lends credibility to this migration theory.) Continually moving southward, the settlers eventually populated both North and South America, creating unique cultures that ranged from the highly complex and urban Aztec civilization in what is now Mexico City to the woodland tribes of eastern North America. Recent research along the west coast of South America suggests that migrant populations may have traveled down this coast by water as well as by land.

Researchers believe that about ten thousand years ago, humans also began the domestication of plants and animals, adding agriculture as a means of sustenance to hunting and gathering techniques. With this agricultural revolution, and the more abundant and reliable food supplies it brought, populations grew and people were able to develop a more settled way of life, building permanent settlements. Nowhere in the Americas was this more obvious than in Mesoamerica (Figure 1.3).

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