Pathophysiology Across the Lifespan

Week 2 quiz

Question 1.

A 60-year-old woman is suspected of having non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Which of the following aspects of her condition would help to rule out Hodgkin lymphoma?

Her neoplasm originates in secondary lymphoid structures.

The lymph nodes involved are located in a large number of locations in the lymphatic system.

The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells has been confirmed.

The woman complains of recent debilitating fatigue.

Question 2.

Which of the following patients is most likely to benefit from transplantation of thymic tissue or major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-compatible bone marrow?

A 12-year-old girl with a history of epilepsy and low IgG levels secondary to phenytoin use

A 7-year-old boy whose blood work indicates decreased IgA and IgG with increased IgM

A 6-year-old boy whose pre-B cells are incapable of translation to normal B cells

A 9-year-old girl who has a diagnosis of IgA deficiency

Question 3.

A nurse practitioner is teaching her colleagues about the role of cytokines in a variety of pathologies. Which of the following teaching points best captures an aspect of the functions and nature of cytokines?

“A particular cytokine can have varied effects on different systems, a fact that limits their therapeutic use.”

“Cytokine production is constant over time, but effects are noted when serum levels cross a particular threshold.”

“Most cytokines are produced by granular leukocytes, and different cells are capable of producing the same cytokine.”

“Cytokine actions are self-limiting in that activation of one precludes activation of other cytokines with similar actions.”

Question 4.

A 29-year-old construction worker got a sliver under his fingernail four days ago. The affected finger is now reddened, painful, swollen, and warm to the touch. Which of the following hematological processes is most likely occurring in response to the infection?

Proliferation of immature neutrophils

High circulatory levels of myeloblasts

Increased segmented neutrophil production

Phagocytosis by myelocytes

Question 5.

A 40-year-old woman who experiences severe seasonal allergies has been referred by her family physician to an allergist for weekly allergy injections. The woman is confused as to why repeated exposure to substances that set off her allergies would ultimately benefit her. Which of the following phenomena best captures the rationale for allergy desensitization therapy?

Repeated exposure to offending allergens binds the basophils and mast cells that mediate the allergic response.

Exposure to allergens in large, regular quantities overwhelms the IgE antibodies that mediate the allergic response.

Repeated exposure stimulates adrenal production of epinephrine, mitigating the allergic response.

Injections of allergens simulate production of IgG, which blocks antigens from combining with IgE.

Question 6.

A 22-year-old female who adheres to a vegan diet has been diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Which of the following components of her diagnostic blood work would be most likely to necessitate further investigation?

Decreased mean corpuscular volume (MCV)

Decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit

Microcytic, hypochromic red cells

Decreased erythropoietin levels

Question 7.

Following a course of measles, a 5-year-old girl developed scattered bruising over numerous body surfaces and was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). As part of her diagnostic workup, blood work was performed. Which of the following results is most likely to be considered unexpected by the health care team?

Increased thrombopoietin levels

Decreased platelet count

Normal vitamin K levels

Normal leukocyte levels

Question 8.

As part of his diagnostic workup, a 77-year-old man’s nurse practitioner has ordered blood work that includes ferritin levels. The man is very interested in the details of his health care and is unfamiliar with ferritin and its role. He asks his nurse practitioner to explain the significance of it and the rationale for testing it. Which of the following explanations by the nurse practitioner is most accurate?

“Ferritin is the activated and usable form of iron that your red blood cells can use to transport oxygen.”

“Ferritin is a stored form of iron that indirectly shows me whether you would benefit from iron pills.”

“Ferritin is a protein-iron complex that allows your red blood cells to make use of the iron that you consume in your diet.”

“Ferritin is the form of iron that is transported in your blood plasma to the red blood cells that need it.”

Question 9.

A 23-year-old man has received a recent diagnosis of appendicitis following 24 hours of acute abdominal pain. The nurse practitioner providing care for the man is explaining that while it is unpleasant, the inflammation of his appendix is playing a role in his body’s fight against the underlying infectious process. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner eliminate from his teaching for the patient?

“Inflammation can help to remove the body tissue cells that have been damaged by infection.”

“Inflammation will start your body on the path to growing new, healthy tissue at the site of infection.

“Inflammation helps your body to produce the right antibodies to fight the infection.”

“Inflammation ultimately aids in eliminating the initial cause of the cell injury in your appendix.”

Question 10.

A 2-year-old girl has had repeated ear and upper respiratory tract infections since she was born. A pediatrician has determined a diagnosis of transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy. What is the physiological origin of the child’s recurrent infections?

Antibody production by plasma cells is compromised because of impaired communication between B and T cells.

The child had a congenital absence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies and her body is only slowly beginning to produce them independently.

The child was born with immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin (IgM) antibodies, suggesting intrauterine infection.

The child lacks the antigen presenting cells integral to normal B-cell antibody production.

Question 11.

A 66-year-old female patient has presented to the emergency department because of several months of intermittently bloody stools that has recently become worse. The woman has since been diagnosed with a gastrointestinal bleed secondary to overuse of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that she takes for her arthritis. The health care team would realize that which of the following situations is most likely?

The woman has depleted blood volume due to her ongoing blood loss.

She will have iron-deficiency anemia due to depletion of iron stores.

The patient will be at risk for cardiovascular collapse or shock.

She will have delayed reticulocyte release.

Question 12.

A 16-year-old female has been brought to her primary care nurse practitioner by her mother due to the girl’s persistent sore throat and malaise. Which of the following facts revealed in the girl’s history and examination would lead the nurse practitioner to rule out infectious mononucleosis?

The girl has a temperature of 38.1°C (100.6°F) and has enlarged lymph nodes.

Her liver and spleen are both enlarged.

Blood work reveals an increased white blood cell count.

Chest auscultation reveals crackles in her lower lung fields bilaterally.

Question 13.

A 30-year-old man has spent 5 hours on a cross-country flight seated next to a passenger who has been sneezing and coughing, and the man has been inhaling viral particles periodically. Which of the following situations would most likely result in the stimulation of the man’s T lymphocytes and adaptive immune system?

Presentation of a foreign antigen by a familiar immunoglobulin

Recognition of a foreign MHC molecule

Recognition of a foreign peptide bound to a self MHC molecule

Cytokine stimulation of a T lymphocyte with macrophage or dendritic cell mediation

Question 14.

A nurse practitioner is explaining to a 40-year-old male patient the damage that Mycobacterium tuberculosis could do to lung tissue. Which of the following phenomena would underlie the nurse practitioner’s explanation?

Tissue destruction results from neutrophil deactivation.

Nonspecific macrophage activity leads to pulmonary tissue destruction and resulting hemoptysis.

Macrophages are unable to digest the bacteria, resulting in immune granulomas.

Neutrophils are ineffective against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens.

Question 15.

A 14-year-old boy has been diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. Which of the following pathophysiological phenomena is most responsible for his symptoms?

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is lysing many of the boy’s neutrophils.

Viruses are killing some of his B cells and becoming incorporated into the genomes of others.

The EBV inhibits the maturation of white cells within his peripheral lymph nodes.

The virus responsible for mononucleosis inhibits the maturation of myeloblasts into promyelocytes.

Question 16.

A couple who are expecting their first child have been advised by friends to consider harvesting umbilical cord blood in order to have a future source of stem cells. The couple have approached their nurse practitioner with this request and are seeking clarification of exactly why stem cells are valuable and what they might expect to gain from harvesting them. How can the nurse practitioner best respond to the couple’s inquiry?

“Stem cells can help correct autoimmune diseases and some congenital defects.”

“Stem cells can be used to regenerate damaged organs should the need ever arise.”

“Stem cells can be used as a source of reserve cells for the entire blood production system.”

“Stem cells can help treat some cancers and anemias, but they must come from your child himself or herself.”

Question 17.

A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction and peripheral vascular disease has been advised by his nurse practitioner to begin taking 81 mg aspirin once daily. Which of the following statements best captures an aspect of the underlying rationale for the nurse practitioner’s suggestion?

Platelet aggregation can be precluded through inhibition of prostaglandin production by aspirin.

Aspirin helps to inhibit adenosine disphosphate (ADP) action and minimizes platelet plug formation.

Aspirin can reduce unwanted platelet adhesion by inhibiting thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthesis.

Aspirin inhibits the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin and consequent platelet plug formation.

Question 18.

A 60-year-old male patient with an acute viral infection is receiving interferon therapy. The nurse practitioner is teaching the family of the patient about the diverse actions of the treatment and the ways that it differs from other anti-infective therapies. Which of the following teaching points should the nurse practitioner exclude?

“Interferon can help your father’s unaffected cells adjacent to his infected cells produce antiviral proteins that limit the spread of the infection.”

“Interferon can help limit the replication of the virus that’s affecting your father.”

“Interferon helps your father’s body recognize infected cells more effectively.”

“Interferon can bolster your father’s immune system by stimulating natural killer cells that attack viruses.”

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper