The opening and closing of stomata depends on the turgor pressure that occurs by the osmotic flow of water into the guard cells.
The guard cells become turgid when they are filled with water, which causes stomata to open. Once the water is released, the guard cells become flaccid; this leads to stomata’s closure.
Exchange of gases through stomata
All plants manufacture their food with the help of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis takes place in the presence of sunlight, water, soil, and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide enters the plant through the stomata.
Oxygen which is the product produced during the plantâ€™s food preparation leaves the plant through the stomata. Stomata may close or open with the help of the turgor pressure that is exerted on the guard cells.
Types of stomata
Ranunculaceous or anomocytic: These stomata are enclosed by five subsidiary cells similar to the epidermal cells.
Cruciferous or anisocytic: These stomata are enclosed by three subsidiary cells in which one is smaller than the other two.
Rubiaceous or Paracytic: These stomata are enclosed by two subsidiary cells parallel to the guard cells.
Caryophyllaceous or Diacytic: These stomata are surrounded by a pair of subsidiary cells at right angles to the guard cells.
Gramineous: These stomata have guard cells in which the middle portions are narrower, and the outer surface appears like dump-bells.
Coniferous Stomata: These are sunken stomata that possess elliptical guard cells, and they have a narrow lamina.
Functions of stomata
Stomata plays an important role in the exchange of gases between the plant and the surroundings. The exchange of gases is facilitated by the stomatal closure and opening.
Stomata help in the removal of excess water in the form of water by the process of transpiration.
The stomatal pore remains closed during the night that helps in preventing water loss through the stomatal pores. The stomatal opening and closing of are balanced according to the weather conditions.
Carbon dioxide enters the plant through the stomatal pore, and the process of photosynthesis releases oxygen. The stomata also provide immunity to the plants that are required for fighting against bacterial pathogens.
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