During this period, birds and mammals were evolving continuously into modern forms. The other forms of animals that lived during this period do not undergo any major changes.
The early ancestors of humans, which were early hominids started appearing in South Africa during the end of this period. Continental movements also took place during this period. One such significant movement is the connection established between North and South America in the region called Isthmus of Panama. This happened during the late Pliocene period.
As a result of this movement, the warm ocean currents were cut off from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean due to which the Gulf Stream transferred heat to the Arctic Ocean.
Further, the climate also cooled more, leading to the culmination of several continental glaciations in the Quaternary period. Continental fauna and flora had a moderate appearance.
A reptilian group called Choristodera was extinct during this period and another amphibian group called Allocaudata disappeared during the late Neogene period, while mammals and birds were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates. The first hominin is believed to have evolved in South Europe and later he migrated to Africa.
As the climate was cool and seasonal climate was prevalent, tropical plant species were replaced by deciduous plants and also forests replaced grasslands. As a result of the diversification of the grasslands, herbivores flourished including horses, antelopes, and bison. The Neogene period includes two epochs namely Miocene and Pliocene.
Miocene is the earlier stage and includes six sub-stages namely Messilian age preceded by Tortonianage, Serravallian age, Langhian age, Burdigalian age, and Aquitanian age.
Life during this Epoch was supported by the dominance of kelp forests and grasslands. Co-evolution occurred, which led to the ungulates and high crowned teeth. Although marine and continental fauna were present, marine mammals were less numerous comparatively.
Animals belonging to the group oredonts flourished and disappeared during the early Pliocene period. Later Miocene was characterized by the appearance of canids, bears, equids, deer, and camelids.
Non-Eutherian mammals existed during this period but they became extinct during the end of this epoch. It is believed that 100 species of Apes were found scattered in Asia, Africa, and Europe during this epoch.
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