Intermolecular forces or Electrostatic interactions
Liquids contain properties midway between the solids and gases but are more similar to solids. As compared to the intramolecular forces of attraction like covalent bonds hold atoms in polyatomic ions and molecules, intermolecular forces are in liquids and solids so as to hold their molecules together. Generally, the intermolecular forces are much weaker than covalent bonds. About 927 kJ needs to break both O-H bonds in 1mol of Hâ‚‚O and overcome the intramolecular forces, whereas, only 41kJ is required to convert 1 mol of water into vapor at 100Â°C and overcome the intermolecular interactions. Similar to the covalent and ionic bonds, these intermolecular interactions are the sum of both attractive and repulsive components.
Types of Electrostatic interactions
The interactions between two dipolar molecules through space is called dipole-dipole interaction. The partially negative portion of one of the molecules is attracted towards the partially positive portion of another polar molecule. Such interactions between molecules account for various physically and biologically important phenomena like the elevated boiling point of Hâ‚‚O.
In 1930, Fritz London, a German physicist stated that there are non-permanent fluctuations distribution of electrons within atoms and non-polar molecules, which lead to short-lived rapid diploe moments formation and produces attractive forces known as London dispersion forces.
A strong dipole-dipole type of interaction is called hydrogen bonding. Such types of bonds are stronger than dipole-dipole interaction but comparatively weaker than covalent and ionic bonds. For hydrogen bonding, molecules must have a hydrogen attached to a highly electronegative, i.e., F, O, N atom and molecules also have a lone pair of electrons on a small highly electronegative atom. As there are no core electrons in hydrogen, the valence electron from hydrogen cannot remove the highly electronegative atoms completely and form an ion. The proton or a small subatomic particle is produced on removing 1s electron of hydrogen that leads to a high charge density, which would pull the electron back. Further, the polar covalent bonds were formed by the hydrogen on attachment with electronegative atom and it does not form ions. The proton of hydrogen deshielded by the valence electrons pulled by the highly electronegative atom resulting large \delta+Î´+. An electronegative atom has a largeâ€¯ \delta-Î´âˆ’ charge and if it contains a lone pair of e-, these get strongly attracted towards deshielded proton of another hydrogen. Thus, a hydrogen bond is created. Due to the small size of the hydrogen that allows it to move in real close, a strong bonding interaction is formed.
Ion-Ion Interaction These types of interactions are responsible for ionic bonding.
Ion-dipole Interaction When ionic substances dissolve in a polar substance, such as water and ion-dipole interactions will take place.
Applications of Electrostatic interactions
Electrostatic interactions become significant for gases at high pressures as these are accountable for their observed deviations from the ideal gas law at high pressures. Such interactions are important in maintaining the 3-D structure of larger molecules. For example,â€¯nucleic acids and proteins. In several biological processes, where larger molecules bind specifically but transiently to one, such interactions are involved. Additionally, these interactions also deeply influenceâ€¯crystallinityâ€¯and design of materials, in general, for manyâ€¯organic molecules synthesis and particularly forâ€¯self-assembly.
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