Insulin is responsible for increasing the production rate of enzymes such as hexokinase and 6-phosphofructokinase activity.
Insulin elevates the glucose transport rate across cell membranes. In addition, it stimulates the synthesis of glycogen and reduces the glycogen breakdown rate.
3. Lipid metabolism:
The synthesis and degradation of lipids in cells are termed lipid metabolism. It helps to maintain the storage and breakdown of fats for completing energy needs.
Insulin helps in decreasing plasma fatty acid levels. Plasma fatty acid level decreases with a decrease in the lipolysis rate in the adipose tissues.
Insulin decreases the fatty acid oxidation in muscle, liver, and adipose tissue.
The triglyceride uptake from blood is increased in the adipose tissue.
Insulin functions as a stimulant for the production of triglycerides and fatty acids.
Insulin Action on Fat Metabolism and Storage
In obesity, glucose cannot be broken down to be absorbed from the blood for energy. Therefore, insulin is responsible for the adipose cells’ growth and differentiation. Therefore, the deficiency of insulin elevates fat utilization for energy. In addition, insulin promotes fatty acid synthesis as follows:
The glucose transport is increased. This increase takes place in the liver by insulin.
In the citric acid cycle, when an excess of glucose is used for energy, it leads to excess citrate ions.
Fatty acids uptake is increased from triglycerides. These fatty acids are often synthesized in the liver.
Insulin plays a significant role in fat storage in adipose cells. It helps in the following roles:
Insulin is responsible for inhibiting the action of lipase. Lipase is responsible for the hydrolysis of triglycerides in fat cells. Therefore, it inhibits the release of fatty acids in adipose tissue into the bloodstream.
Insulin promotes the transportation of glucose. This glucose forms minute amounts of fatty acids and glycerol phosphates. A – glycerol phosphate combines with fatty acids to form triglycerides. Therefore, when insulin is not available, the transport of fatty acids is blocked.
Effect of Insulin on Fat Metabolism
Obesity is defined as the state of the body where body mass index or BMI is more than or equal to 30 kilograms per meter square (kg/m2). When obesity leads to dysfunction in the liver and fat cells, it causes insulin resistance. As a result, high insulin levels are synthesized in the pancreas to complete the energy needs, leading to high blood sugar levels. Adipokines secreted by adipose tissue are the chief modulators of inflammation. Adipokines stimulate and also decrease the inflammatory response. Therefore, obesity works as a stimulant of adipokines that increase the inflammatory response in the adipose cells.
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