A hydrogen bond is the basic backbone of all living and non-living forms on the Earth. Scientists have studied in a detail hydrogen bond, starting from its structure to arrangement to functions. They have given a representation of the hydrogen bond to denote its role in various fields. Hydrogen bonds are found both within a single molecule or between molecules.
Structure of hydrogen bond:
Hydrogen bonds are created as a result of dipole interaction. Usually, the hydrogen atom exists along with other atoms. It is highly attracted to more electronegative atoms like oxygen because the size of a hydrogen atom is very small and the positive end of the H atom can attract the adjacent negative bonds easily. The bond they form is called polar bonds. Hydrogen bonds are considered relatively strong because the coulombic force is inversely related to the distance. However, they are considered weaker than covalent interactions.
When it comes to a compound, a molecule that supplies polar hydrogen atoms for attachment is the donor. On the other end, the molecule which provides sufficient electrons to hydrogen to get attracted is the acceptor. Compounds such as alcohol and water can act as donors as well as acceptors. However, some like ketones, aldehydes, and others can act only as acceptors. Primary amines and secondary amines serve as both donors and receptors but tertiary amines are always only acceptors.
Water and its properties:
Water has many properties due to the presence of hydrogen bonding in it.
This is the ability of the water to stick together. There exist certain forces between the water molecules known as cohesion forces which have a very important function in the surface tension property. The molecules present on the surface do not contain any other similar molecules on either side of them. Therefore, they tend to bind strongly to those molecules that attach to them directly. For instance- when we drop a little drop of water on the surface, the molecules of the water stick together to form a droplet. They do not spread over the surface.
The bonding of the water molecules with other molecules are given in terms of adhesion. For example- we see the water droplets binding to the sides of the leaves. This property is because of the hydrogen bonding breaking and forming with great frequency. This frequent rearrangement of the hydrogens allows the attachment of water molecules with other molecules. Adhesion is necessary for the capillary action and both these properties are very important in the survival of the organisms. In plants, it is important for the movement of water and minerals from the plantâ€™s roots to the various parts of the plants. In animals, it is necessary for the movement of blood through the vessels.
The boiling point of the water is greater than the boiling point of several other substances that lack hydrogen bonding. 100 degrees Celsius is the point where the water boils. This is the reason behind the water being in the liquid state on Earth. The liquid form of the water is contributed by the strongly bound hydrogens. This is very important for the survival of all organisms on Earth.
The specific heat of the water is very high as it requires a lot of energy to increase or decrease the water temperature. Therefore, water plays a major role in temperature regulation everywhere, even inside the body. As the cells are made of water, high specific heat will help to maintain homeostasis in the body.
Zero degree Celsius is the point when the water melts. In this condition, it is present in the ice form. Water when present in the solid-state is much less dense than water in the liquid state. This is because expansion occurs in the water when it freezes. The hydrogen bonds in the water do not line up properly and efficiently in the mice when compared to the liquid state of water. Therefore, this causes the water molecules to be placed farther apart in the ice resulting in a lower density of the ice. This is why ice floats on the water when other solid materials sink to the bottom when present in any liquid.
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