Due to biological incompatibilities, the sterile hybrids such as the mule, which cannot reproduce are a hybrid between a horse and a donkey. It is formed from crosses between species of the same genus. Certain interspecific hybrids are fertile and have the true-breeding capacity. These hybrids can be the source for producing new species. Various economically and aesthetically important plants such as bananas, coffee, peanuts, and kinds of wheat have originated through natural hybridization or by chemical hybridization induced by chemicals, temperature changes, or irradiation.
Hybrids in plants-
The hybrid is the emergence of species from their parents. This species shares the characters of both their parents. In plants, the hybrids are formed by crossing and by natural pollination.
Farmers use more hybrid plant seeds during farming to develop disease and insect resistant plant varieties for increasing yield and profit.
Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884) who did hybridization experiments in pea plants is referred to be the father of genetics. His experiments led to the discovery of basic concepts of genetics especially the laws of heredity.
Many plant varieties are being generated and are disease resistant.
Hybrids in animals-
After fertilization, the egg in most cases did not develop properly and it eventually dies. When the reproductive cells of closely related species mates together, in many conditions the offspring are born sterile.
For example, the mule arises from the fertilization between horse and donkey. These mules are not able to mate to produce their offspring. They remain sterile in their lifespan.
The horse contains 62 chromosomes, whereas the mule has 63 chromosomes. Hence are unable to fertilize any female animal due to the presence of an extra chromosome.
The hybridization between lion and tiger is the process in which both lion and tiger are successfully crossbred to produce a hybrid offspring. If the male lion is crossed with a tigress then the hybrid offspring is called a liger.
If the male is a tiger and the female is a lioness, the hybrid offspring is called a tigon. The hybridization of lions and the tigress is a viable process as both lions and tigers are very similar genetically, as both cats possess a lot of common physical characteristics and instincts.
They have equal numbers of chromosomes (38 chromosomes). Therefore, hybridization is successful and the offspring are viable without any genetic defects. Both ligers and tigons inherit 19 chromosomes from lions and 19 from tigers.
However, if the number of chromosomes is different in parents, they may not be able to produce viable offspring and may have genetic defects.
Importance of hybrid offsprings:
The hybridization process is biologically important as it is used to increase the genetic variation within a species by producing new genetic combinations. This variation promotes speciation and evolution.
If the climatic or habitat are altered, the individuals with certain genetic combinations may become extinct. But the individuals with different combinations will survive.
The morphology and ethology of a species may get altered gradually by natural hybridization. This type of hybridization is more common among certain species, which causes the identification and counting of a species difficult.
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