Vasopressin participates in various roles in the renal system, which are as follows:
Antidiuretic hormone maintains the tonicity of bodily fluids and allows the reabsorption of water by the kidneys, and thereafter, circulate this water towards the tubules of the nephron for adjusting the normal tonicity of fluids. As a result, more concentrated urine is passed in decreased volume, which decreases the water loss from the body. Also, increased levels of vasopressin can elevate blood pressure by stimulating vasoconstriction. In addition, the antidiuretic hormone elevates the calcium and aquaporin levels in the collecting ducts.
Vasopressin boosts the inner medullary section’s permeability of the collecting ducts for urea. This is done by maintaining the activity of urea transporters present on the cell surface. These urea transporters help in the reabsorption of urea into the renal medulla on going down the concentration gradient caused by the water expulsion from structures like connecting tubule and collecting duct systems.
The antidiuretic hormone elevates the absorption of sodium in a nephronic portion called the loop of Henle. It facilitates the countercurrent mechanism system that develops a concentration gradient and allows the appropriate absorption of water in the distal tubule and the collecting ducts.
Apart from kidneys, vasopressin is also essential for various neurological functions that include the following:
Vasopressin is discharged in the brain in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which is a small section of the brain located in the hypothalamus region that helps in the maintenance of circadian rhythm. The circadian rhythm is a biological process that regulates sleep-wake rotation for twenty-four hours and gets replayed after this period. Additionally, the ADH hormone released from the hypothalamic neurons extending medially is responsible for aggressiveness and the adjustment of temperature and blood pressure. Vasopressin may also possess analgesic properties that rely on some factors like stress.
Vasopressin As Vasoconstrictor
Muscle cells utilize calcium for undergoing contraction, and this contraction is controlled by a collection of hormones and neurotransmitters. Vasopressin is considered as a potent vasoconstrictor, which along with other contraction stimulators, connects with a chain of signal transduction pathway and thereby induces contraction either by altering the cellular calcium levels or the reaction of contraction machinery to calcium. When the concentration of intercellular fluid increases, calcium starts associating with the calmodulin that triggers kinase, which phosphorylates the myosin. This phosphorylation of the light chain of myosin stimulates myosin ATPase and the revolution of myosin cross-bridges by the actin, which results in the contraction of muscles. Vasopressin hormone targets the surface receptors of the cells that conjoin with the G-proteins to cause vasoconstriction. It connects with the V1Rs receptors located in the vascular smooth muscles via a Gq/11 pathway to activate the phospholipase C. The intercellular messengers like triphosphate and diacylglycerol get released, which further stimulates protein kinase C. This increases the level of intercellular calcium and begins the process of vascular smooth muscle contraction.
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