Types of energy balance
Energy balance includes energy expenditure, dietary intake, and energy storage. The three energy balance categories get derived from perturbations in the energy intake and expenditure.
Positive energy balance: This state occurs when the calorie intake exceeds energy expenditure. It is the healthy energy state for pregnant women, weightlifters, nursing mothers, and growing children. Positive energy balance acts as an indicator for healthy weight gain and is a fit state for athletes trying to bulk up. However, long-term positive energy balance increases the risk of body composition imbalance. Cholesterol, hypertension, and plaque buildup are side effects of overfeeding and under-exercising.
Negative energy balance: A negative energy balance state occurs when the energy expenditure exceeds total calorie intake. It results in 60%â€“80% body mass loss in the form of fat. A negative energy balance indicates energy deficiency. A severe energy deficiency leads to a reduction in physical performance, hormonal imbalance, and poor metabolism.
Neutral energy balance: A neutral or perfect energy balance occurs when the total calorie intake equals the energy expenditure. It indicates proper weight maintenance and balanced body composition. A neutral energy balance helps to tackle obesity and other health conditions.
Factors influencing energy balance
The energy balance framework changes over time. It depends on weight, calorie intake, basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and current health status. Energy balance fluctuations are often associated with obesity. A surge in energy imbalance and overweight populations happened in recent years. The factors influencing energy balance include:
Social influence: Statistical surveys ascertain that social influence impacts energy balance both indirectly and directly. Obesogenic factors surround the growing United States population. The use of escalators and elevators, for example, brings down average daily energy expenditure, unlike using stairs. Extended working hours reduced leisure time for gym and exercise also lowers energy expenditure. In addition, health experts state that social and economic status directly influences energy expenditure rates. Low-income neighborhoods, for example, are more exposed to walking and physically demanding jobs. It, in turn, enhances efficient calorie use and prevents fat accumulation.
Behavioral and psychological Influences: Most times, personal choices and behavior affect diet choices. A sedentary lifestyle, for example, indicates low-level physical activity choice. Obesogenic environment often disrupts the energy balance approach. The more a person avoids regular exercise, the lesser the average energy expenditure. A 2008 case study exhibits that Americans partake in 7.7 hours of daily screen time. Epidemiological reports also state that sedentary behavior contributes to weight gain and abnormal energy metabolism.
Genetic influences: Genetic composition plays a vital role in energy balance maintenance. Gene interaction with the obesogenic environment often elevates calorie intake. A person exposed to high calorific food triggers the brain for restoring target energy balance. It is only possible if body metabolism works efficiently. The interference of the obesity gene disrupts the energy balance no matter the diet and physical activity level.
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