Transportation of Oxygen Gas
Blood is a connective tissue that helps in the transportation of the oxygen gas from the respiratory organs to the cells of the tissue, and it also transports carbon dioxide from tissues to the respiratory organs. In lower organisms or sluggish animals, the need for oxygen is low, and the oxygen is transported in the dissolved form in the plasma of blood. In higher animals, large animals require more oxygen and are slightly soluble in plasma; therefore, oxygen is transported in the bound form. Oxygen is generally associated with hemoglobin (respiratory pigment). Oxygen transportation in blood takes place in two ways; these are in solution form and as oxyhemoglobin.
Oxygen transportation in solution form:
About one to three percent of oxygen is transported with the help of blood in dissolved form. Oxygen dissolves in the plasma of the blood. For example, with about 4.6 mL of oxygen entering each deciliter of blood in the lungs, only 0.17 mL of oxygen is transported in the solution form.
Oxygen transportation as oxyhemoglobin:
About ninety-seven to ninety-nine percent of oxygen is transported through the chemical combination of hemoglobin. The hemoglobin molecule is formed of four iron-containing porphyrins prosthetic group attached to the globin protein. The globin protein is formed by the four polypeptide chains; these are two alpha and two beta chains. Each of the iron molecules can bind with the oxygen to form the oxyhemoglobin; therefore, one hemoglobin molecule can bind up to four molecules of oxygen depending upon the saturation with the oxygen. An increase in the partial pressure of oxygen of the alveolar air assists in the transportation of oxygen. Low levels of hydrogen ion concentration favor the formation of oxyhemoglobin. Oxygen has an affinity with hemoglobin, and about fifteen mg of hemoglobin in about 100 ml of blood can transport the 19.08 mL of the oxygen gas.
Uptake of the oxygen by the pulmonary blood:
The partial pressure of the gaseous oxygen in the alveolar air on average is 104 mm Hg. At the same time, that of the venous blood in the pulmonary arterial capillaries is about sixty-four mm Hg. This increases the partial blood pressure of oxygen as the blood passes through the capillary, and it becomes as high as 95 mm Hg. The percent saturation of hemoglobin is ninety-seven to ninety-nine percent.
Factors Affecting the Binding of Oxygen
Hemoglobin is the main pigment that bonds with the oxygen molecule, and it transports the oxygen to different tissues and organs. Some of the environmental factors affect the carrying capacity of oxygen, and the same applies to carbon dioxide. Whenever the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood increases, the acidic nature of blood also increases. This is due to more hydrogen ions. Hydrogen ions are accountable for the acidic nature of blood. An increase of affinity of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin will decrease the affinity of oxygen. In some diseases like sickle cell anemia, the red blood cell is deformed, and it also decreases the capacity to deliver oxygen gas.
Role of the Circulatory system in the Transportation of Gases
The circulatory system of humans has a main pumping organ, the heart. The heart transfers the oxygenated blood through the main arteries to several organs. Carbon â€“dioxide gas is expelled outside because it is a waste product.
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