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farmers were required to pay their taxes in money and thus had to convert their rice into currency.22

The government facilitated the entry of these houses into the banking busi- ness when a system of national banks was established in 1872, and it encour- aged their expansion into the industrial realm by transferring many state-owned enterprises to them at very low prices. In 1880 a law enabling the government to transfer factories to private hands was enacted, and factories in nonstrategic industries such as cotton spinning, glass making, and cement were turned over to private firms.

Initially the government maintained control of mining, with the exception of the Sumitomo Company, which was allowed to keep the Besshi copper mine, the largest in the country. As time went on, private firms increasingly moved into this industry.23

The government supported and subsidized the Mitsubishi Company in the area of shipping. It gave thirteen ships that had been used as military trans- ports during the Formosan expedition of 1874 to the founder of the company, Iwasaki Yatarō (1835–1885), and beginning in 1875 the government subsi- dized his shipping business by granting it an annual subsidy of 250,000 yen for fifteen years.24 The Mitsubishi Company was provided even further assis- tance when, in 1887, the government sold it the Nagasaki Shipyards. State support of sea transport was extended because, for strategic and economic rea- sons, it was deemed necessary to have a strong merchant fleet that was capable of competing on equal terms with foreign shipping firms. Also, there were fre- quently close personal bonds between key members of the government and the major business houses.25

education At the time of the Meiji Restoration some traditional scholars hoped to make Confucianism or Shinto the basis of learning. This was the case because what had presumably taken place was the “restoration” of imperial authority and traditional values. In 1869 a traditionalist scholar who believed that the object of education should be the elucidation of the “imperial way” was made the head of the Bureau of Educational Studies. It was intended that Shinto be made the national religion and the foundation of education. The goal of edu- cation, as stated in an official proclamation issued in 1870, must be the incul- cation of “respect for the enlightened way of the kami [gods], and the clarification of human relations. The multitudes must rectify their minds, per- form their work diligently, and serve the imperial court.”26

This essentially reactionary trend in educational thought was soon chal- lenged, however, by those who represented the movement to “enlighten and

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civilize” the country. They maintained that in order to modernize Japan, West- ern educational ideas and practices had to be adopted. The movement was led by private educators such as Fukuzawa Yukichi (1835–1901), but the need to adopt and adapt Western educational concepts and institutions was also recog- nized by the more progressive of the government leaders.

The importation of Western knowledge necessarily required that a high level of literacy be achieved. The literacy rate of Tokugawa Japan was indeed relatively high, as was noted earlier, but the Meiji leaders set out to eliminate illiteracy completely. They issued the Education Ordinance of 1872, which stated that there shall be “no community with an illiterate family, nor a family with an illiterate person.”27 Universal education was instituted by this act, and every child was, in theory, required to attend school for eight years. The phi- losophy underlying this system was utilitarian and pragmatic, as the preamble to the Education Ordinance demonstrates:

In order for each person to make his way in life, husband his wealth wisely, en- joy prosperity in his business, and attain the goal of his life he must develop his character, broaden his knowledge, and cultivate his talents. . . . [All this, however,] cannot be achieved without education. For this reason schools are established. . . . Learning is like an investment for success in life. How can anyone afford to neglect it?

The practical aspect of learning was emphasized by the observation that

language, writing, and arithmetic used in daily affairs as well as the affairs of the shizoku, officials, farmers, merchants, and practitioners of all kinds of arts and crafts, and matters pertaining to law, politics, astronomy, medicine, etc., that is, all things that man concerns himself with belong to the domain of learning.

The new approach to learning was contrasted with the old approach in which

earning was regarded as the business of the samurai and his superiors while the peasants, artisans, merchants, women and children paid no heed to it, having no notion of what it meant. Even the samurai and his superiors who pursued learning tended to claim that it was done for the good of the state and were unaware of the fact that it was the foundation for success in life.

This emphasis on the practical nature of learning reflected the thinking of Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had a significant influence on early Meiji education.

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He rejected the study of classical literature and poetry and argued that learning should be practical because it must be applied to real life and used to improve the livelihood of the people and enrich the nation.

The structure of the educational system of 1872 was patterned after France’s system. The country was divided into eight university districts, each containing thirty-two middle school districts. Each of these was to include 210 elementary school districts. All of this, however, merely remained a plan on paper, and very few universities or middle schools were actually established in the early Meiji era. Not many elementary schools were built, either, and much of the instruc- tion that did in fact go on took place in private homes and Buddhist temples.

Normal schools were established, with the assistance of an American educa- tor, Marion M. Scott (1849–1936), in order to train teachers for the new schools. Scott was a follower of Johann Pestalozzi (1746–1827), the Swiss edu- cational philosopher who emphasized the use of actual objects, models, and specimens in instruction.28

The curriculum of the elementary schools was influenced mainly by the American educational system. The textbooks, containing lessons about West- ern societies and civilization, were written by men like Fukuzawa or were translations of Western schoolbooks, especially American readers. Particular emphasis was placed on the introduction of scientific knowledge.

Traditionalists steeped in the Confucian classics scoffed at the effort to teach children about “peaches, chestnuts, and persimmons” while pupils failed to be stirred by accounts of Napoleon and other Western heroes. School atten- dance began to rise despite the financial burden on the masses and the seeming irrelevance of much of what was being taught.29

In order to accelerate the pace of student enrollment and gain greater public support for the schools, the minister of education, Tanaka Fujimaro (1845– 1909), with the assistance of David Murray, a professor from Rutgers Univer- sity, revised the educational system in 1879. Following the example of the American school system, Tanaka decentralized the Japanese schools, and a lo- cally elected school board was introduced in each community to establish and maintain the schools. The period of compulsory education was fixed at four years, with each school year consisting of four months. All of these reforms, however, failed to strengthen the educational system, which may in fact have become even weaker because in some instances the local communities chose to close the schools or amalgamate them in order to reduce expenses.

In 1880 Tanaka was replaced and a new ordinance was issued that served to centralize the system again while giving the prefectural governors greater au- thority over the schools. The length of compulsory education was changed to three years, but because the school year was extended to thirty-two weeks, the period of school attendance was in reality made longer.30

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During the 1880s a more conservative philosophy began to permeate the educational system. A conscious effort was made to replace the more libertar- ian, individualistic values that were taught in the schools with traditional virtues such as loyalty to the emperor, filial piety, and benevolence and righ – teousness. The teaching of “morals” was made compulsory, and many of the textbooks then in use, like Fukuzawa’s works and the translations of Western texts on moral science, were replaced by books that were Confucian or Shinto in orientation. Japanese history came to be emphasized in an effort to acquaint students with the virtues of their own country.

All this was part of the rising tide of cultural nationalism (see page 135) that was becoming increasingly discernible around this time. There was a marked shift away from the concept that education was intended to serve the interests of the individual and toward the philosophy that it was primarily aimed at serving the ends of the state. The movement dictating tighter control over ed- ucational content continued, and in 1883 a policy of state textbook certifica- tion was adopted, with more stringent curbs being added in 1886.31

Significant steps in the direction of tighter control of the schools and indoc- trination and training of the young to serve the interests of the state were taken in 1886 under the leadership of the minister of education, Mori Arinori (1847–1889). He issued a series of educational ordinances directed at intro- ducing greater uniformity in the educational system while patterning it some- what after the military. He introduced military drills in the schools, selected an army officer as the first president of the higher normal school, and organized the students in the normal school dormitories as if they were soldiers in bar- racks. Textbooks were also brought under closer government scrutiny. The University of Tokyo, which was established as a successor to the Bakufu’s col- leges, was renamed the Imperial University of Tokyo and brought under the close supervision of the ministry of education.32

Mori paid special attention to the education of the teachers, the molders of the young. The object of their training and indoctrination, he contended, was the creation of decent human beings who possessed the virtues of “obedience, friendship, and dignity.” The last virtue was to be manifested in issuing and obeying commands.

By the 1880s, in line with the rise of conservatism, the American influence in educational thinking began to give way, and Japanese educators began to look to the Germans for guidance. The educational philosopher to whom they turned was Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776–1841). He focused his attention on the development of a student’s moral character and held that the object of education should be the development of an enlightened will that is capable of making distinctions between right and wrong. These were particularly appeal- ing notions at this time because of the growing tide of reaction against the

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superficial imitation of Western ways and the desire on the part of the tradi- tionalists to restore Confucian moralism to the educational sphere.

civilization and enlightenment In the cultural and intellectual realms, the first decade or so of the Meiji era was characterized by frantic efforts to adopt Western concepts, practices, and products in order to become “civilized.” Initially, both the government and private leaders agreed upon the necessity of “civilizing and enlightening” the nation, which meant, in essence, the adoption of the utilitarian, rational, sci- entific, and technological aspects of Western civilization.

Students were sent abroad, and Western scholars and specialists in all fields were invited to Japan to assist in the modernization of the country.33 A massive educational effort was launched to “enlighten” the populace. A large number of books, pamphlets, and journals were published to spread knowledge about the West. Many of these were translations of Western works, while others were written by Japanese. There was, however, strong opposition to Western learn- ing by the exponents of the sonnō jōi movement until the Meiji government came into existence. With its establishment, the policy of seeking “knowledge throughout the world” was officially adopted, thus ushering in the era of “civi- lization and enlightenment.” The government encouraged the movement to “civilize” and Westernize the people because it realized that this was essential if Japan was to become as rich and powerful as the Western nations.

Fukuzawa Yukichi was one of the leading private proponents of “civilization and enlightenment.” Through his enormous publications he contributed more than any other individual toward the education of the people about the West.34 Fukuzawa began publishing his Conditions in the West just prior to the fall of the Tokugawa Bakufu, and it became the most widely read and most in- fluential book of that era. It provided the Japanese public with some inkling of the Western way of life and institutions.

With the advent of the Meiji era, when it became permissible to criticize the traditional way of life and values, Fukuzawa became a vociferous advocate of Western liberalism, thus ceasing to be merely a purveyor of information about the West. The values he extolled were freedom, independence, self-respect, ra- tionalism, the scientific spirit, pragmatism, and what might be called “bour- geois materialism.”

The best known of Fukuzawa’s works that were designed to transform the mode of thinking of the people were Encouragement of Learning, published be- tween 1872 and 1876, and Outline of Civilization, published in 1875. In the earlier work he emphasized the importance of education, arguing that all men are equal at birth but distinctions develop because of differences in education.

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He believed that what must be pursued was practical, scientific learning that was based upon the spirit of inquiry and skepticism. He also emphasized the necessity of strengthening the spirit of freedom and independence in the people in order to guarantee the independence of Japan. He rejected the pater- nalistic, hierarchic, repressive values of the past and called for the fostering of individualism. In his Outline of Civilization, Fukuzawa continued to empha- size the importance of freedom in strengthening the spirit of the people, upon whom the advancement of civilization depended.

Fukuzawa’s significance as the chief exponent of “civilization and enlighten- ment” is enormous, but there were also other scholars and writers who con- tributed to the diffusion of Western knowledge and sought to “enlighten” the people. Many Western books, such as Samuel Smiles’s Self-Help and John Stu- art Mill’s On Liberty, were translated and widely read. Educational societies such as the Meirokusha (Meiji Six Society), organized by Fukuzawa and his friends, spread Western ideas and knowledge through their journals. The fol- lowing were among the founding members: Nakamura Masanao, who trans- lated Mill’s On Liberty; Nishi Amane, who introduced utilitarianism and positivism to Japan; Mori Arinori, who became minister of education in 1885; and Katō Hiroyuki, who later turned to Social Darwinism and German sta- tism. Newspapers also came into existence and began to flourish, but they tended to focus on political issues. They became primarily instruments for the government or the opposition forces, and did not concentrate on the diffusion of knowledge about Western civilization.

The number of students going abroad to study increased substantially with the advent of the Meiji era.35 Western language schools, particularly those for English, mushroomed and flourished. In 1874 there were ninety-one foreign language schools, with a total enrollment of 12,815 students.

The Meiji government also invited a large number of Western scholars and specialists to assist in the task of modernization. They were particularly promi- nent in the field of education: in 1874 there were 211 Western professors in the higher schools; in 1877, 27 of the 39 professors at Tokyo University were from the West.36

The Christian missionaries were another important source of information about the West and its values. They translated the Bible into Japanese, estab- lished mission schools and charitable institutions, and had as their students many prominent Meiji leaders. Guido Verbeck was among the more influen- tial missionaries, and he served in various capacities in Japan from 1859 to 1898. In 1871, while he was a college professor, more than 1,000 students at- tended his lectures on the American Constitution and the New Testament.

There was a movement to adopt Western artifacts and customs at the same time that the government was adopting the policy of Westernization in order

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to strengthen and enrich the nation, and Fukuzawa and his cohorts were in- stilling and fostering the “spirit of civilization” in the people. This extended from such things as interest in Western languages and Christianity, to Western art, apparel, hair styles, and even the eating of beef. The technological prod- ucts of the West, of course, were regarded with awe by the people.37 Baseball was introduced as early as 1872, and by the late 1880s it had become a part of the sports programs in the higher schools.

The admiration for Western things and the concurrent contempt for things Japanese led some men to suggest that the Roman alphabet be substituted for the traditional writing system, and that the English language replace Japanese. It was also suggested that intermarriage with Occidentals be fostered in order to improve the Japanese racial stock. This low regard for things native resulted in precious art objects being abused or allowed to leave the country freely for Western museums. Woodblock prints by prominent artists were used to wrap fish and vegetables, many Buddhist temples and treasures were destroyed, and precious wooden structures were used as fuel. The attacks against Buddhist ar- tifacts were, to be sure, primarily the result of anti-Buddhist sentiments, but the lack of respect for traditional things is also reflected in these actions.

The segment of the society that found it most difficult to adjust to the new ways was the peasantry. Consequently, government leaders encouraged the publication of popular, easy to read works on “enlightenment and civilization” and endeavored to persuade the masses by rational arguments to adapt them- selves to “civilized” ways.

At the upper levels of the society the desire to emulate Western ways culmi- nated in the efforts of the government leaders to imitate the social life of the West by holding fancy costume balls at the Rokumeikan, a social hall built for the aristocracy. This style of living flourished for half a decade during the 1880s, but a growing sense of disenchantment with Western ways coupled with a revival of cultural nationalism resulted in strong criticisms of the undig- nified behavior of some of the government leaders. The decline in this lavish social life occurred just about the time when the era of indiscriminate imita- tion of the West was coming to a close.

religion At the outset of the Meiji era, an effort was made to establish Shinto as the state religion in order to fortify the foundation of imperial rule. Initially the government established the Jingikan (Department of Shinto) and placed it above the Dajōkan. Steps were taken to end the syncretic tendencies that had prevailed between Shinto and Buddhism in the past. The Shintoists initiated a frenzied move to suppress Buddhism, and consequently many Buddhist build-

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ings and artifacts were damaged or destroyed. The anti-Buddhist trend at the center was followed by many local authorities with the result that a large num- ber of Buddhist temples were eliminated.38 The government, however, soon abandoned its policy of actively suppressing Buddhism, partly to check the ac- tivities of the extreme anti-Buddhists but also because it realized that popular support of Buddhism could not be eradicated. It was also feared that the vac- uum created by the weakening of Buddhism might be filled by Christianity.

Having lost the patronage and protection of the ruling class, and being con- fronted with challenges from Shinto and Christianity, some Buddhist leaders began to bestir themselves from centuries of relative inaction. They endeavored to revivify the religion that had lost its vitality during the halcyon days of Toku- gawa rule, when every person was required to register with a Buddhist temple.

The government insisted on functioning as a religious and moral agent even after it had abandoned its plan to impose Shinto upon the people as the official religion. It established the Board of Religious Instruction in 1872 to propagate the Great Teaching, whose principles were based upon Shinto nationalism. Ef- forts at Shinto revival abated with the onrush of Westernism, but the religion did manage to stage a comeback by the late 1880s. Shinto and Confucian moralism gained a powerful outlet in the Imperial Rescript on Education of 1890.

Out of an ardent desire to be accepted by the West, the Meiji leaders adopted the principle of religious freedom in 1873, thus putting an end to the long proscription against Christianity. The Meiji government had, prior to this, retained the Bakufu’s ban against Christianity and continued the persecu- tion of Japanese Christians, particularly the many thousands who had surfaced around Nagasaki after the centuries of hiding that followed the religious perse- cution of the seventeenth century.

Missionaries had been permitted to work in the treaty ports to serve the West- ern residents who lived there. Through their educational and medical work they also managed to establish contacts with the Japanese. Some missionaries, like J. C. Hepburn (1815–1911), made enormous contributions to Japanese culture.39 Many future leaders of Meiji Japan came under the influence of the missionaries. For example, toward the end of the Tokugawa era Guido Verbeck had among his students in Nagasaki, Saigō Takamori, Gotō Shōjirō, Ōkuma Shigenobu, Soe- jima Taneomi, and Etō Shimpei; L. L. Janes (1838–1909) in Kumamoto influ- enced a number of young men including Tokutomi Sohō (1863–1957), who became a leading exponent of liberalism and nationalism; W. S. Clark in Sap- poro, Hokkaido, was the teacher of such men as Nitobe Inazō, a prominent edu- cator, and Uchimura Kanzō (1861–1930), who became a leading Christian.

The percentage of Christian converts before the Second World War re- mained fairly low—there were 300,000 Christians in the 1930s out of a total

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population of about 70 million—but many of them came from the upper rungs of the society and were rather well-educated. They had developed a strong political and social consciousness, and as a result they exerted a much greater influence upon the society than the relatively small number might oth- erwise indicate.

Notes 1. It is some measure of the nature of Japanese society that many of these “rebels” (loyalists

to the Tokugawa) were later allowed to join the new Meiji government. For example, the ex- shōgun was rehabilitated enough to become designated a prince. Enomoto served as foreign minister in the early 1890s.

2. Yokoi, a former adviser to the daimyō of Echizen, was an exponent of fukoku kyōhei. He was accused by the jōi advocates of favoring republicanism and Christianity.

3. The agricultural production of the entire country at this time was estimated at 30 mil- lion koku, but the central government had only 8 million koku under its control.

4. Ironically, the single most popular family name chosen by peasants was “Tokugawa.” 5. Japan and Peru appealed to the Russian Tsarist government for international arbitration,

which Japan ultimately won. This was widely trumpeted as Japan’s first “international law case.” 6. The upper- and middle-class shizoku saw their incomes decline by as much as 47 to 74

percent. The lower-class samurai, however, were the ones affected most adversely, for they ex- perienced an 88 to 98 percent drop in income. Their average annual income came to about twenty-nine yen, which was comparable to the pay of an ordinary soldier, who, however, also received free room, board, and clothing.

7. This was two to seven times the rates prevailing in Europe at this time. In some in- stances, in fact, the farmers had to pay even heavier taxes than they did in the Tokugawa era because collection under the Meiji government was much more stringently implemented.

8. The fact still remained, however, that the agrarian sector was paying for the cost of mod- ernizing and industrializing the nation. During the period from 1875 to 1879, 80.5 percent of the government’s tax revenues were derived from the land tax.

9. The average tenant paid in excess of 60 percent of his crop to the landowner, who used about half of this to pay the land tax while retaining the other half as his revenue. The tenant’s share, after payment of miscellaneous dues, came to about 32 percent of the crop. In the Tokugawa period the tenants kept, on average, 39 percent of the yield.

10. This was in sharp contrast to the Anglo-American practice of dividing the functions between judge and jury, in which the former determined matters of law and the latter matters of fact, a distinction unknown to the Japanese. An option making it possible to receive jury trials in criminal cases was provided for in 1923, but it was little used before being suspended in 1943.

11. Rule-of-law, in which these limitations are fixed by the law in deference to a considera- tion of fundamental human rights and the electoral process, did not come into existence until the postwar era. Dan F. Henderson, “Law and Political Modernization in Japan,” in Political Development in Modern Japan, ed. Robert E. Ward (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968), p. 415.

12. A separate court system (Court of Administrative Litigation) was set up to deal with cases involving administrative authorities. This, of course, meant that administrative abuses could not be brought under the scrutiny of the courts of law.

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13. In Satsuma, where Ōkubo came from, about 20 percent of the population belonged to the shizoku class and thus constituted a force that had to be reckoned with.

14. Kazushi Ohkawa and Henry Rosovsky, “A Century of Japanese Economic Growth,” in The State and Economic Enterprise in Japan, ed. William W. Lockwood (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965), pp. 52–53. The years 1868–1885 are seen by economists Ohkawa and Rosovsky as a transition period during which the groundwork was laid for the initial phase of Japan’s modern economic growth, which began in 1886 and extended to 1905. The second phase ran from 1906 to 1952. This was followed by a period of postwar growth that commenced in 1953.

15. Government figures of 1874 indicate that at that time, in a way that was typical of pre- modern manufacturing patterns, textiles and food accounted for over 70 percent of the value of all manufacturing output. Ibid., p. 58.

16. E. Sydney Crawcour, “The Tokugawa Heritage,” in Lockwood, State and Economic En- terprise, p. 44.

17. By 1893, Japan had 2,000 miles of railroad, 100,000 tons of steam vessels, and 4,000 miles of telegraph lines.

18. The estimate of percentage increase in paddy rice yield in a given area from 1873–1877 to 1883–1887 is believed to have been between 2.5 and 6.6 percent. One economist estimates that the annual growth rate of agriculture over the period 1873–1877 to 1918–1922 was 1 percent while others estimate it at 2.9 percent. Harry Oshima, “Meiji Fiscal Policy and Eco- nomic Growth,” in Lockwood, State and Economic Enterprise, p. 355. Cf. James Nakamura, “Growth of Japanese Agriculture, 1880–1935,” in Lockwood, State and Economic Enterprise, p. 305; Kazushi Ohkawa and Henry Rosovsky, “A Century of Japanese Economic Growth,” in Lockwood, State and Economic Enterprise, pp. 69–70 note.

19. The total number of notes in circulation rose from 106.9 million yen in 1876 to 164.4 million yen in 1879.

20. Under his financial management the government saved an average of 28 percent of its current revenues. Half of this savings was used for capital formation, and the other half was retained as surplus. The quantity of money was reduced by about 20 percent, and commodity prices fell sharply. In 1884 the general price level dropped to 75 percent of what it had been in 1881, interest rates declined, and foreign payments shifted in Japan’s favor.

21. The price of rice in Tokyo dropped 50 percent in the years between 1881 and 1884, and this meant that the peasants had to allot twice as much rice for tax payments. In 1881 the peasants utilized 16 percent of the total rice production in tax, whereas in 1884 they had to al- locate 32.8 percent.

22. Functioning as rice dealers and tax collectors, merchant houses such as Mitsui made huge profits by buying and selling the rice turned in for tax payments when the market price was the most advantageous for them.

23. The Miike coal mine was obtained by the Mitsui Company, a few gold mines were ac- quired by the Furukawa Company, and a number of gold and silver mines went into the hands of the Mitsubishi Company in 1896.

24. Later, as the shipping company amalgamated with another firm and formed the Nip- pon Yūsen Kaisha (Japanese Mail Line), the government granted it a yearly subsidy of 880,000 yen.

25. Inoue Kaoru, for example, was so close to the House of Mitsui that he was sometimes derisively referred to as “that Mitsui store clerk.” The main reason the company was able to ac- quire the Miike coal mine was that it had obtained information about its competitors’ bids from the minister of finance, Matsukata. Ōkuma was Iwasaki Yatarō’s close friend. The owner

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of the Ashio copper mine, Furukawa Ichibei, adopted Foreign Minister Mutsu Munemitsu’s first-born son, Junkichi.

26. The Bakufu’s Confucian academy, the Shōheikō, was reactivated as the center of learn- ing for Confucianism and Shinto.

27. This and the following passages are the author’s translation from the original text. 28. The cost of education was borne by the taxpayers, that is, primarily by the farmers. A

tuition of between 12.5 sen and 50 sen per student per month was also charged (there are 100 sen to the yen). This tuition, if paid in full, would have been prohibitive for most families since the average income per month for the common people was 1 yen 75 sen in 1878. Only a small percentage of the tuition was collected, however, and it covered only 10 percent of the educational costs.

29. There was only 28 percent attendance in 1872, but this figure rose to 40 percent by 1878. The number of girls in school, however, remained small, and even as late as 1887 the ratio of boys to girls in school was three to one. The traditional notion that girls were inferior and had no need for an education was partly responsible for this lag.

30. In 1900 the period of attendance was extended to four years, and the system of charg- ing tuition was abolished.

31. At first, textbooks had to be compiled in accordance with guidelines delineated by the ministry of education, but in 1903 the government took direct charge of the actual compila- tion and publication of primary school textbooks.

32. In fact, it was turned into an actual component of the state in which professors and stu- dents were expected to pursue learning that would further the interests of the state. Its chief function was to produce properly indoctrinated and trained future bureaucrats and leaders of the state.

33. Hundreds of foreign specialists (oyatoi, or “honorable employees”) were employed on lucrative three-year contracts to teach a cadre of young Japanese boys. The oyatoi were not al- lowed to own land and were discouraged from forming coteries by forcing the young Japanese to learn the language of the oyatoi during instruction.

34. It is estimated that between 1860 and 1893, some 3.5 million copies—if the several volumes of some of the titles were counted separately, this figure would climb to nearly 7.5 million copies—of his published works circulated among the reading public.

35. In 1873 there were 373 Japanese students studying in the West. Approximately 300 students came to the United States between 1865 and 1885. England was also a popular des- tination, and in the early 1870s there were more than 100 students in London alone.

36. The number of Western educators, technicians, and advisers in Japan hit a peak of 524 in 1874 and then began to decrease gradually.

37. In a popular children’s song, the following ten most desirable objects were enumerated: gas lamps, steam engines, horse-drawn carriages, cameras, telegrams, lightning conductors, newspapers, schools, postal mail, and steamboats.

38. For example, in Toyama han in north central Honshu, 1,630 temples were abolished, leaving only 7 remaining to serve the entire han.

39. A Japanese-English dictionary was compiled by Hepburn and published in 1867. He also devised a system of romanizing Japanese words.

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Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.


Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!


While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.


Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.


In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.


Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.


We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!


We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.


Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

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