The revealing of the DNA structure has brought great advantages and helped the development of biology. For a long time, it was believed that the only form of DNA which have biological relevance is B- form. Later studies disapproved of this. It was found that the DNA undergoes structural changes depending on the environment. The different structures of DNA are characterized as the A, B, C, D, and Z, etc. There are also other generic descriptions given of alternative DNA structures. The base pairing in the DNA attains different polymorphic forms that are important for its packaging and functioning. The DNA undergoes twisting, turning, and stretching to adapt themselves to the environment.
The best described and explaining structure was given by Watson and Crick in 1953. They proposed that the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has a right-handed double-helical structure. Rosalind Franklin was the one who studied the base composition of nucleotide data of the Chargaff and the B â€“ DNA structural study by the X-ray diffraction pattern. The major feature of this model of DNA is that the presence of two strands of polynucleotide coiled around a common axis point and hold together by the hydrogen bonds between the bases of the complementary strands. The hydrogen bonds are formed between the purine and pyrimidine bases in the DNA strands.
DNA molecule is the polymer chain of the nucleotides where the phosphate-diester bonds join the D-deoxyribose sugars at the 3â€² and 5â€² hydroxyl groups of the adjacent nucleotides. The backbone of DNA comprises of six single bonds that help in the flexible rotation and thereby give possible structural and conformational changes of the DNA strand. The two chain od the DNA strands are held together by the AT and CG base pairing, which gives the double-helical structure, and it looks similar to the ladder. Each turn of the double helix of the DNA consists of 10 nucleotides per turn, which separated from each other by + 36Â° rotation and 3.4 Ã… translation along the axis. The two strands of DNA run antiparallel to each other, i.e., one in 5â€™ to 3â€™ direction, and the other one is 3â€™ to 5â€™ direction. The A, B, C, and D forms of the DNA structure is slightly differing from the B-form.
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