Describing and Predicng Behavior

Resources

Required Text

Malec, T. & Newman, M. (2013).Research methods: Building a knowledge base.San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc. ISBN-13: 9781621785743, ISBN-10: 1621785742.Chapter 4: Survey Research-Describing and Predicting Behavior

Required References

Benedict K (2014, April 11).Correlation – The Basic Idea Explained[Video file]. Retrieved from

Diem, K. G. (2002).A step-by-step guide to developing effective questionnaires and survey procedures for program evaluation & research.Available at

Mariampolski, H. (2001). Qualitative vs. quantitative.Qualitative Market Research, 22-25. SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781412985529.n13

Rice, G. T. (2005).Developing high quality multiple-choice test questions.Available at

Smith, Lara (2013, November 18).Correlation Basics[Video file]. Retrieved from

Week 5 – Discussion 1

 

Questionnaire Design

Topic: Depression & Cancer

Using the textbook, required articles and recommended resources, construct a 5-6 item questionnaire on a topic of your choice. Your questionnaire can include either open-ended or closed-ended (fixed format) questions. Submit your completed questionnaire to this discussion forum.

Be sure to consider the following when responding:

1. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the questionnaire overall?

2. Consider how the items are worded and the response choices, if applicable, are provided.

a. Are the questions clear and concise?

b. Are there any questions that are vague or unclear?

c. If applicable, are the response choices effective?

d. Is there only one correct response choice?

e. Are there any unintentional cues to the correct answer?

f. Do the items appear to be a good measure of what the student is wanting to assess?

3. How could the questionnaire be improved?

 

Week 5 – Discussion 2

 

Sampling topic: Elderly

In qualitative and quantitative studies, sampling refers to selecting a particular sample of individuals from a larger population. This process is often called participant selection. Qualitative research collects rich data from fewer sources, while quantitative research attempts to collect a larger, more representative sample from the population as a whole. Selection criteria for eligibility in a study is similar for both quantitative and qualitative studies, however, there are some differences with respect to the procedures used and the size of the samples.

Instructions:

Consider a particular topic (this can be the topic from one of your previous discussions or assignments), and a particular qualitative or quantitative research design and state the factors you would consider in choosing participants for the study. Be sure to answer the following in your discussion:

What sampling method would you use?

How would you go about deciding how many participants to select given a particular methodology?

What factors should be considered regarding sample size, representativeness, and apparent biases in the selection of the sample?

Your post should be at least 300 words. For this discussion, rather than responding to two peers, select one peer whose study idea you find particularly intriguing and engage in a back and forth discussion with that peer about the discussion question topics. You may reconnect with the peer you discussed with in Week 4 Discussion 1 or select a different peer this week. Make sure to have at least two substantive posts to that classmate. Here, our goal is to dive a bit deeper into a discussion with an individual peer. Feel free to post additional responses to the discussion thread that share what you both learned from your exchange. Peer responses should by posted by Day 7.

Chapter 4 Survey ResearchDescribing and Predicng Behavior

Kim Steele/Photodisc/Gey Images

Chapter Contents

Introducon to Survey Research (hp://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Malec.5743.13.1/secons/sec1.1#sec1.1) Designing Quesonnaires (hp://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Malec.5743.13.1/secons/sec1.2#sec1.2) Sampling From the Populaon (hp://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Malec.5743.13.1/secons/sec1.3#sec1.3) Analyzing Survey Data (hp://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Malec.5743.13.1/secons/sec1.4#sec1.4) Ethical Issues in Survey Research (hp://content.thuzelearning.com/books/Malec.5743.13.1/secons/sec1.5#sec1.5)

In a highly influenal book published in the 1960s, the sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) defined sgma as an unusual characterisc that triggers a negave evaluaon. In his words, “The sgmazed person is one who is reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one” (1963, p. 3). People’s beliefs about sgmazed characteriscs exist largely in the eye of the beholder but have substanal influence on social interacons with the sgmazed (see Snyder, Tanke, & Berscheid, 1977). A large research tradion in psychology has been devoted to understanding both the origins of sgma and the consequences of being sgmazed. According to Goffman and others, the characteriscs associated with the greatest degree of sgma have three features in common: They are highly visible, they are perceived as controllable, and they are misunderstood by the public.

Recently, researchers have taken considerable interest in people’s atudes toward members of the gay and lesbian community. Although these atudes have become more posive over me, this group sll encounters harassment and other forms of discriminaon on a regular basis (see Naonal Gay Task Force, 1984). One of the top recognized experts on this subject is Gregory Herek, professor of psychology at the University of California at Davis (hp://psychology.ucdavis.edu/herek/ (hp://psychology.ucdavis.edu/herek/) ). In a 1988 arcle, Herek conducted a survey of heterosexuals’ atudes toward both lesbians and gay men, with the goal of understanding the predictors of negave atudes. Herek approached this research queson by construcng a scale to measure atudes toward these groups. In three studies, parcipants were asked to complete this atude measure, along with other exisng scales assessing atudes about gender roles, religion, and tradional ideologies.

Herek’s (1988) research revealed that, as hypothesized, heterosexual males tended to hold more negave atudes about gay men and lesbians than heterosexual females. However, the same psychological mechanisms seemed to explain the prejudice in both genders. That is, negave atudes were associated with increased religiosity, more tradional beliefs about family and gender, and fewer experiences actually interacng with gay men and lesbians. These associaons meant that Herek could predict people’s atudes toward gay men and lesbians based on knowing their views about family, gender, and religion, as well as their past interacons with the sgmazed group. Herek’s primary contribuon to the literature in this paper was the insight that reducing sgma toward gay men and lesbians “may require confronng deeply held, socially reinforced values” (1988, p. 473). And this insight was possible only because people were asked to report these values directly.

 

 

 

4.1 Introducon to Survey Research

Whether you are aware of it or not, you have been encountering survey research for most of your life. Every me your telephone rings during dinnerme, and the person on the other end of the line insists on knowing your household income and favorite brand of laundry detergent, he or she is helping to conduct survey research. When news programs try to predict the winner of an elecon two weeks early, these reports are based on survey research of eligible voters. In both cases, the researcher is trying to make predicons about the products people buy or the candidates they will elect based on people’s reports of their own atudes, feelings, and behaviors.

Surveys can be used in a variety of contexts and are most appropriate for quesons that involve people describing their atudes, their behaviors, or a combinaon of the two. For example, if you wanted to examine the predictors of atudes toward the death penalty, you could ask people their opinions on this topic and also ask them about their polical party affiliaon. Based on these responses, you could test whether polical affiliaon predicted atudes toward the death penalty. Or, imagine you wanted to know whether students who spent more me studying were more likely to do well on their exams. This queson could be answered using a survey that asked students about their study habits and then tracked their exam grades. We will return to this example near the end of the chapter as we discuss the process of analyzing survey data to test our hypotheses about predicons.

The common thread running through these two examples is that they require people to report either their thoughts (e.g., opinions about the death penalty) or their behaviors (e.g., the hours they spend studying). Thus, in deciding whether a survey is the best fit for your research queson, the key is to consider whether people will be both able and willing to report these things accurately. We will expand on both of these issues in the next secon.

In this chapter, we connue our journey along the connuum of control, moving on to survey research, in which the primary goal is either describing or predicng atudes and behavior. For our purposes, survey research refers to any method that relies on people’s reports of their own atudes, feelings, and behaviors. So, for example, in Herek’s (1988) study, the parcipants reported their atudes toward lesbians and gay men, rather than these atudes being somehow directly observed by the researchers. Compared with the qualitave and descripve designs for observing behavior we discussed in Chapter 3, survey research tends to yield more control over both data collecon and queson content. Thus, survey research falls somewhere between quantave descripve research (Chapter 3) and the explanatory research involved in experimental designs (Chapter 5). This chapter provides an overview of survey research from conceptualizaon through analysis. We will cover the types of research quesons that are best suited to survey research and provide an overview of the decisions to consider in designing and conducng a survey study. We will then cover the process of data collecon, with a focus on selecng the people who will complete your survey. Finally, we will cover the three most common approaches for analyzing survey data, bringing us back full circle to addressing our research quesons.

Distinguishing Features of Surveys

Survey research designs have three disnguishing features that set them apart from other designs. First, all survey research relies on eit


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper