Living organisms possess seven significant levels of classification. These levels include the Kingdom, Phylum, and Class. The other levels are Order, Genus, and species. The kingdoms listed by the scientists are plants, animals, fungi, archaebacteria, protozoa, and bacteria. Cylindrocarpon lucidum belongs to the subkingdom referred to as Dikarya and the super kingdom called Eukaryota. Cylindrocarpon lucidum species belong under the family Nectriaceae, class Sordariomycetes, and order Hypocreales. In Nova Scotia, apple replant disease is also caused by Cylindrocarpon lucidum. These species are also involved in the formation of cyclosporine.
The taxonomic categories arranged in a descending manner are; Kingdom, Phylum or Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. The class of eukaryotic organisms that acts as decomposers in nature is classified into a different Kingdom known as Fungi. Earlier, they were classified as imperfect plants, but due to the unique properties of the species, they were given a new kingdom. This kingdom of fungi was further classified into five different phyla because the fungal species varied among themselves. The sac fungi or Ascomycota constitute the largest phylum of fungi, such as Cylindrocarpon.
The branch of science where the study of microbes is taken place is known as microbiology. The main focus of clinical microbiologists is quick and exact identification of infectious agents and also performs antimicrobial susceptibility.
Apple replants disease can be found mostly in the regions where nuts or intensive tree fruit are developing. In this condition, the nut crop productivity decreases in the field where it is grown repeatedly. The symptoms of this disease are reduced biomass of root as well as reduced fruit production. The other symptoms associated with this disease include uneven growth and reduced fruit quality. Cylindrocarpon lucidum along with Pythiumir regulareis mainly responsible for causing this disease. Cylindrocarpon lucidum results in discoloration of the root as well as apple seedling growth also decreases. The phyla Ascomycota is the most diverse and largest phyla out of all the other phyla of Kingdom Fungi. They contain highly pathogenic members and the most useful ones also. The Ascomycetes are characterized by their sac shaped structures and, therefore, also known as Sac fungi.
The ability of the body to resist and fight infections is known as immunity. There are two types of immunity that affects the individual, innate immunity and acquired immunity. Cyclosporine can also be spelled as cyclosporine or cyclosporin. It is a natural product and is generally used as an immunosuppressant. Cyclosporine prevents organ rejection in an individual who has received an organ. Cyclosporine plays an important role in slowing down the immune system of the body to prevent the recipient’s body from rejecting the transplanted organ. Organ transplant rejection mainly occurs when the T cells recognize the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules and stimulate T cytotoxic cells to destroy these non-self-molecules. Cyclosporine mainly acts on the T cells to reduce their activity. The main mode of action of cyclosporine is inhibiting cytokine production. Cytokines regulate T-cell activation. Cyclosporine specifically inhibits the transcription of a cytokine signaling molecule called interleukin-2 and thus, reduces the activity of T cells. Cyclosporine A is the immunomodulatory factor that is used to inhibit cytokine activation and the transcription of interleukin. The aerobic fungi used in the submerged fermentation are identified to produce the compound Cyclosporine A. Trichodermapolysporum is a widely known aerobic fungus involved in the production of cyclosporine A. However, the discovery of cyclosporine first occurred in the fungi called Cylindrocarpon lucidum. The fact that Cylindrocarpon lucidum species are involved in the production of cyclosporine was proved by Dreyfus et al. in the year 1976.
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