Cycads are woody, columnar, and have unbranched stems. They are dioecious plants, and the male and female cones are mostly terminal. Ovules are present in the megasporophyll structures. The microsporophylls are located on the abaxial surface. Male gametes are called spermatozoid and these are flagellated. Word of these cycads is manoxylic with a large amount of parenchyma and less amount of xylem tracheids, pith and cortex having mucilage canals. The leaf trace has a diploxylic vascular bundle with two types of xylem,i.e. centripetal xylem (present towards the center) and centrifugal xylem (present towards the outside), characteristic of Cycas.
Cycads consist of tuberous, contractile taproot systems with narrow lateral roots that are racemosely branched, coralloid roots that are swollen, and dichotomously branched. Coralloid roots are referred to as aerial, apogeotropic roots, or pneumatophores but lack real features found in such roots. The word coralloid is used for mature roots that are invaded by Cyanobacteria while the roots uninvaded by cyanobacteria are referred to as pre-coralloid roots. The coralloid root is the best example of symbiosis between plant roots and nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria Nostoc and Anabaena. These roots involve specifically in the metabolism of nitrogen in the plant and the nitrogen economy of the ecosystem.
Cycads are the plant with a thicker trunk and comparatively few branches. Usually, the stem is aerial or columnar in structure with fleshy nature. The Stangeriaand Zamia, are some species of Macrozamiaand the shape of the stem of these kinds of plants is somewhat spherical. In certain species like Zamia pumila, the shoot apex is present underground with the subterranean shoot. Contraction of the taproot and the branch pulls the shoot underground. Destruction of cells results in distortion of the vascular cylinder. Columnar trunk and apical clusters of bigger pinnate leaves give a palm-like structure to the cycads. Sieve elements, parenchyma fibers, and cells are the important structures that form the axial system which is required for secondary growth consists of. Parenchyma cells are of two classes: those having starch and the albuminous cells. In the non-functional phloem, including the starch, these still compact, and the albuminous cells get damaged, resulting in Pits formation.
The leaf length differs from as small as five to six cm in the species of cycad that is in Zamia pygmaea and the Cycas circinalis, its length reaches up to three meters. It is challenging, fibrous, and pinnate or bipinnate (Bowen). The leaflet of such cycads bear prominent midrib, and along with the lateral veins branch dichotomously as in Chigua. Cycads generate periodic crowns of foliage leaves and scale leaves. The stomata in cycads are haplocheilic in which the guard cells are produced from a single mother cell while the subsidiary cells are derived from another initial section.
Reproduction The plants of cycads have different plant bodies concerning to male and female, and the female and male sporophylls are organized into strobili, except in the specific plant Cycas, in which the megasporophylls remain loosely arranged without forming a cone. Thermogenesis or heat-production in the strobili helps to volatilize organic chemicals which results in an odor that attracts insects for pollination. Male gametophyte development includes division in the stalk cells several times to form a line of body cells which leads to the production of spermatozoids per male gametophyte.
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