Foundation species in an ecosystem are identified by ecologists using three major characteristics
Foundation species are the largest number of species in an ecosystem and represent the majority of the biomass in it.
They are at or near the base of the directional interaction networks that symbolize the ecosystem. Examples include trees in forests and the corals and sponges of benthic marine systems.
Their connections to other organisms of the ecosystem are non-trophic (i.e., not related to the food web) and mutualistic. These include offering structural support to other species, changing the properties of the ecosystem to either favor or disfavor other species, altering the metabolic rate of other species, and regulating the systemâ€™s energy fluxes and nutrient flow.
Foundation species are either directly or indirectly connected to a greater number of species than any other species is individually linked to in an ecosystem. These species are inseparable from the ecosystem they exist in as they define that ecosystem. Examples include the redwood trees (Sequoia sempervirens) of the â€˜redwood forestsâ€™ and hermatypic corals (Acropora, Porites, or Montastrea species) of â€˜coral reefs.â€™ Foundation species can be either lone species (e.g.) S.semper virens, species in a genus that share similar functional qualities (e.g.) Acropora species of corals, or unrelated species brought together by convergent characteristics (e.g.) mangroves. When two or more foundation species co-exist, the combined effects of their specificity and complementarity (that they express as foundational species) can non-redundantly promote diversity of associated species and processes of the ecosystem.
Differences from Other Types of Species
Foundation species are different from other species in their contribution to the community. Paul Dayton described the species to â€œhave roles in the maintenance of the community disproportionate to the abundance or biomass of the species.â€ Other species may overlap with foundation species in one or two functional aspects, but not all. For instance, keystone species are an important part of an ecosystem and are essential for its continued functioning. However, they do not form the basis of a community all by themselves. They maintain the biodiversity of the community and increase the richness of the local species. When such organisms are removed from the community, the composition of species and biodiversity is drastically altered. Keystone species can either be herbivores or predators. Keystone species, contrasting foundation species, are rarely common. The sea star Pisaster ochraceus found in the northwest United States is a keystone species that affects the population of its natural prey, mussels, in its community. Core species are abundant in the local environment and are regionally common. They, too, regulate biodiversity, like that of foundation species. However, their effects on energy fluxes and the nutrition flow are unclear. Dominant species garner most of the available nutrients and competitively exclude subordinate species. They also increase the richness of the local species. However, unlike foundation species, they do not facilitate the biodiversity of an ecosystem. Cornerstone species are basal species like algae. They have an effect on the local richness and species wealth at the higher trophic levels. They facilitate biodiversity and have keystone species-like effects on diversity. But cornerstone species are rare, and their significance has not yet been fully analyzed.
Ecological Significance of Foundation Species
As foundation species form the basis of a community, their decline or disappearance affects the interactive network due to the loss of other species that depend on them. Associated species also disappear either because they have a strong, direct relationship with the foundation species or because they are indirectly dependent on them. Several of the associated species that depend on foundation species are rare and uncommon and may be of ecological concern and listed as endangered by national or international organizations. Hence, the loss of foundation species can reduce the functionality of an ecosystem faster than that resulting from the loss of individual species. If foundation species are replaced by other species that do not function to the same extent, then the entire ecosystem may be rearranged. Even if new interactions are formed, they would be less linked as compared to one mediated by a foundation species.
Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply
Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?
Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.
Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?
- Plagiarism free papers
- Timely delivery
- Any deadline
- Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
- Subject-relevant academic writer
- Adherence to paper instructions
- Ability to tackle bulk assignments
- Reasonable prices
- 24/7 Customer Support
- Get superb grades consistently
Online Academic Help With Different Subjects
Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.
Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.
While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.
Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.
In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.
Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.
We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!
We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.
Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.
What discipline/subjects do you deal in?
We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.
Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?
Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.
What if I don’t like the paper?
There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.
- When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
- We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.
In the event that you don’t like your paper:
- The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
- We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
- Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.
Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?
Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.
What if the paper is plagiarized?
We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.
When will I get my paper?
You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.
Will anyone find out that I used your services?
We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.
How our Assignment Help Service Works
1. Place an order
You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.
2. Pay for the order
Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.
3. Track the progress
You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.
4. Download the paper
The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.
PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!