There are several benefits of using antibiotics in animal feed. The primary benefit involves inclination in efficiency and growth rate of animals. Moreover, it is also advantageous in treating clinically sick animals and delaying the risk of infections among other animals. Several antibiotics are used for the better birth rate and production of poultry animals. For example, tetracycline and penicillin are mainly used to increase the rate of production of chicken. Administration of these antibiotics results in an improvement in egg production and hatchability. Antibiotics also decrease the chances of mortality. Antibiotics such as chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and penicillin are also used to improvise the growth rate. However, these antibiotics are not effective in the betterment of the mortality rate. Antibiotics in animal feed are used to increase efficiency as well as to combat certain diseases. The meat treated with antibiotics also has a long shelf life as it prevents microbial attack and degradation.
The meat and other animal products are kept in the withholding periods to minimize the effect of antibiotics as per the federal guidelines. The testing protocols of the United states department of agriculture (USDA) detect the trace of the antibiotics before allowing them to release for human consumption.
Risk of Antibiotics in Animal Feed
When an animal gets exposed to antibiotics for an extended period, the bacteria eventually start developing resistance to the antibiotic. As the bacteria proliferate, they get converted into resistant bacteria. These resistant bacteria get easily transferred from one animal to another. The bacteria flourish itself to the whole body of the animal. Eventually, the excretory part of the animal also consists of resistant bacteria. These antibiotic-resistant bacteria get an entire way for the human body in many ways. The primary exposure to humans is by the transfer of bacteria in slaughterhouse and poultry farms.
During the cleaning process on poultry farms, there are high chances of humans getting bacterial infections through animals. Humans can also get infected through infectious meat intake. Even by cooking the meat, there are still chances of bacteria transfer. After ingestion of bacteria, humans also became capable of transferring the bacteria to other humans too. Human-to-human infection can be done by aerosol means, sharing water and food, or bodily fluids. Transmission of resistant bacteria can also lead to a specific condition such as hospitalization or severe infection. Resistant bacteria can also get converted into super germ, that is resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Resistant Bacteria in Meat Products
The presence of resistant bacteria in animal products is quite common. For example, several meat products have the presence of bacteria such as salmonella, campylobacter, and E. Coli. The majority of the meat samples of chicken, beef, turkey, and pork contain salmonella. These bacteria remain persistent in the meat due to their resistance to antibiotics. 81% of bacteria found in turkey are resistant bacteria, whereas almost 69% resistant bacteria are present in the pork meat. The amount of resistant bacteria is 55% and 39% in beef and chicken, respectively. However, many animal products are claimed to be resistant free however they still have slightly less resistive bacteria present in them. According to studies, organic chicken is more contaminated with salmonella and campylobacter in comparison to non-organic chicken. Moreover, the concentration of enterococcus bacteria is high in organic in comparison to non-organic chicken.
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