Attachment and Cultural Diversity

Attachment and Cultural Diversity

Attachment is formed, supported, and reinforced by certain behaviors of the adult caregiver, which are influenced greatly by the child. However, parents from different cultural backgrounds raise children differently. In the United States and throughout the world, a variety of different child-rearing practices and adult-child behaviors are used. These different approaches are deeply embedded within the culture of the parents and other caregivers who interact with the child. Spotlight: To Sleep Alone? illustrates one of these cultural differences. But what is culture, and how does it have an impact on the attachment of a child?

 

In the book Multicultural Principles (Administration for Children and Families, Head Start Office, 2010), a variety of definitions of culture are provided:

 

“a framework that guides and bounds life practices” (Hanson, 1992)

“the organized and common practices of particular communities” (Rogoff, 1990)

“the complex processes of human social interaction and symbolic communication” (Hernandez, 1989, p. 45)

“patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviors acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts” (Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1952, p. 357)

“the ways and manners people use to see, perceive, represent, interpret, and assign value and meaning to the reality they live or experience” (de Melendez & Ostertag, 1997)

You can see that there is no agreed-upon definition of culture. However, all of these definitions point to how groups of people affect the values, behaviors, interactions, and symbols of individuals within them. And one of the central ways cultures exhibit themselves in families is in the way children are raised.

 

Four critical characteristics of culture must be kept in mind. First, culture can be the product of a vast variety of groups, or societies, including but not limited to geographic regions, ethnic and racial groups, national peoples, tribes, and economic and religious groups. Second, cultures are dynamic—they are continually under a state of flux and change. A third element of culture, particularly in an ever-more diverse and global world, is that cultures continually come up against other cultures, and they are changed by this contact. This process, whereby people and cultures change and adapt as they are exposed to other peoples and cultures, resulting in the dynamic, ever-changing nature of societies, is called acculturation (Wardle & Cruz-Janzen, 2004). Finally, cultures often exist within larger, more global cultures. We talk of the United States society as comprising many cultures—being multicultural. However, if you talk to people who do not live in the United States but have met an American or someone who has come to the United States from another country, they are likely to tell you that there is such a concept as the U.S. culture (Wardle, 2011b).

 

When considering cultures and the cultural contexts in which children and families are embedded, Ngo (2008) reminds us that cultural characteristics are not absolute and do not occur as opposites. It is not minority versus majority, individual versus communal, and competitive versus collective characteristics and behaviors that are exhibited by people from specific cultures, but rather cultural nuances and complexities. On the issue of independence versus dependence, for example, the question should be how are both independence and interdependence understood and valued in relationship to children’s development in different cultures (Raeff, 2010)?

 

Cross-cultural research using the Strange Situation experiment shows that, across cultures and countries, the same numbers of infants are classified as displaying secure attachment (Sagi, van Ijzendoorn, & Koren-Karie, 1991). However, the proportion of infants in the various insecure attachment categories differs from culture to culture.

 

For example, in Japan infants became upset when mothers left the room and ambivalent on the return of their mothers. Their attachment relationship was characterized by researchers as insecure-resistant/ambivalent attached (Miyake, Chen & Campos, 1985; Takahashi, 1990). Infants in Japan rarely leave their mothers’ side, babysitters are uncommon, and when parents need care for their infants, grandparents are used (Saarni, Mumme, & Campos, 1998). In Germany, a culture very different from Japan, infants do not seem upset at all when their mothers leave and are not too eager to rejoin their mothers on their return. They seem to display an insecure-avoidant attachment (Grossmann, Grossmann, Huber, & Wartner, 1981). In Germany and other European countries, mothers often leave infants alone for short periods, and the infants’ behavior seems to reflect this.

 

Because parents in all countries and cultures believe they are good parents who are attached to their children, the understanding of what constitutes attachment differs from culture to culture. Mothers in Japan view their children as securely attached if they behave well, cooperate, and do not bring attention to themselves (Rothbaum, Pott, Azuma, Miyake, & Weitsz, 2000). However, mothers in the primarily white cultures of Europe and North America are more likely to associate secure attachment with autonomy and individuality.

 

Children in a variety of cultures develop secure attachments. Further, the development of secure attachment is not a function of culture, but is rather, as has been pointed out, the direct result of specific adult-child interactions. So long as the significant caregivers in the child’s life—either their biological parent(s) or other important adults—engage in the kinds of behaviors that we know foster the development of secure attachment, children will develop secure attachment (NICHD Early Child Care Research Network, 2001). Further, in collective societies it may be easier to provide attachment behaviors for difficult children (those with medical or other challenges, and children with difficult temperaments), because a variety of adults are available to provide sensitive, supportive, warm, and responsive care.

 

From a diversity perspective, it is critically important to understand that it is not the family’s structure or the family’s culture that determines whether a child develops secure attachment, but the variety and consistency of ways significant adults in the child’s life interact with the child (Honig, 2002, 2005).

2.4 Nurturing Secure Attachment in Early Care and Education Programs

Our discussion of attachment has focused on the primary caregiver—often the mother—and the child because this is the strongest early influence and where attachment initially develops. But attachment can also be encouraged, supported, and fostered within the early care and education program. Both the family and the early care and education program belong within Bronfenbrenner’s microsystem—the first and most

Get professional assignment help cheaply

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason may is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Our essay writers are graduates with diplomas, bachelor, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college diploma. When assigning your order, we match the paper subject with the area of specialization of the writer.

Why choose our academic writing service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently

 

 

 


Get Professional Assignment Help Cheaply

Buy Custom Essay

Are you busy and do not have time to handle your assignment? Are you scared that your paper will not make the grade? Do you have responsibilities that may hinder you from turning in your assignment on time? Are you tired and can barely handle your assignment? Are your grades inconsistent?

Whichever your reason is, it is valid! You can get professional academic help from our service at affordable rates. We have a team of professional academic writers who can handle all your assignments.

Why Choose Our Academic Writing Service?

  • Plagiarism free papers
  • Timely delivery
  • Any deadline
  • Skilled, Experienced Native English Writers
  • Subject-relevant academic writer
  • Adherence to paper instructions
  • Ability to tackle bulk assignments
  • Reasonable prices
  • 24/7 Customer Support
  • Get superb grades consistently
 

Online Academic Help With Different Subjects

Literature

Students barely have time to read. We got you! Have your literature essay or book review written without having the hassle of reading the book. You can get your literature paper custom-written for you by our literature specialists.

Finance

Do you struggle with finance? No need to torture yourself if finance is not your cup of tea. You can order your finance paper from our academic writing service and get 100% original work from competent finance experts.

Computer science

Computer science is a tough subject. Fortunately, our computer science experts are up to the match. No need to stress and have sleepless nights. Our academic writers will tackle all your computer science assignments and deliver them on time. Let us handle all your python, java, ruby, JavaScript, php , C+ assignments!

Psychology

While psychology may be an interesting subject, you may lack sufficient time to handle your assignments. Don’t despair; by using our academic writing service, you can be assured of perfect grades. Moreover, your grades will be consistent.

Engineering

Engineering is quite a demanding subject. Students face a lot of pressure and barely have enough time to do what they love to do. Our academic writing service got you covered! Our engineering specialists follow the paper instructions and ensure timely delivery of the paper.

Nursing

In the nursing course, you may have difficulties with literature reviews, annotated bibliographies, critical essays, and other assignments. Our nursing assignment writers will offer you professional nursing paper help at low prices.

Sociology

Truth be told, sociology papers can be quite exhausting. Our academic writing service relieves you of fatigue, pressure, and stress. You can relax and have peace of mind as our academic writers handle your sociology assignment.

Business

We take pride in having some of the best business writers in the industry. Our business writers have a lot of experience in the field. They are reliable, and you can be assured of a high-grade paper. They are able to handle business papers of any subject, length, deadline, and difficulty!

Statistics

We boast of having some of the most experienced statistics experts in the industry. Our statistics experts have diverse skills, expertise, and knowledge to handle any kind of assignment. They have access to all kinds of software to get your assignment done.

Law

Writing a law essay may prove to be an insurmountable obstacle, especially when you need to know the peculiarities of the legislative framework. Take advantage of our top-notch law specialists and get superb grades and 100% satisfaction.

What discipline/subjects do you deal in?

We have highlighted some of the most popular subjects we handle above. Those are just a tip of the iceberg. We deal in all academic disciplines since our writers are as diverse. They have been drawn from across all disciplines, and orders are assigned to those writers believed to be the best in the field. In a nutshell, there is no task we cannot handle; all you need to do is place your order with us. As long as your instructions are clear, just trust we shall deliver irrespective of the discipline.

Are your writers competent enough to handle my paper?

Our essay writers are graduates with bachelor's, masters, Ph.D., and doctorate degrees in various subjects. The minimum requirement to be an essay writer with our essay writing service is to have a college degree. All our academic writers have a minimum of two years of academic writing. We have a stringent recruitment process to ensure that we get only the most competent essay writers in the industry. We also ensure that the writers are handsomely compensated for their value. The majority of our writers are native English speakers. As such, the fluency of language and grammar is impeccable.

What if I don’t like the paper?

There is a very low likelihood that you won’t like the paper.

Reasons being:

  • When assigning your order, we match the paper’s discipline with the writer’s field/specialization. Since all our writers are graduates, we match the paper’s subject with the field the writer studied. For instance, if it’s a nursing paper, only a nursing graduate and writer will handle it. Furthermore, all our writers have academic writing experience and top-notch research skills.
  • We have a quality assurance that reviews the paper before it gets to you. As such, we ensure that you get a paper that meets the required standard and will most definitely make the grade.

In the event that you don’t like your paper:

  • The writer will revise the paper up to your pleasing. You have unlimited revisions. You simply need to highlight what specifically you don’t like about the paper, and the writer will make the amendments. The paper will be revised until you are satisfied. Revisions are free of charge
  • We will have a different writer write the paper from scratch.
  • Last resort, if the above does not work, we will refund your money.

Will the professor find out I didn’t write the paper myself?

Not at all. All papers are written from scratch. There is no way your tutor or instructor will realize that you did not write the paper yourself. In fact, we recommend using our assignment help services for consistent results.

What if the paper is plagiarized?

We check all papers for plagiarism before we submit them. We use powerful plagiarism checking software such as SafeAssign, LopesWrite, and Turnitin. We also upload the plagiarism report so that you can review it. We understand that plagiarism is academic suicide. We would not take the risk of submitting plagiarized work and jeopardize your academic journey. Furthermore, we do not sell or use prewritten papers, and each paper is written from scratch.

When will I get my paper?

You determine when you get the paper by setting the deadline when placing the order. All papers are delivered within the deadline. We are well aware that we operate in a time-sensitive industry. As such, we have laid out strategies to ensure that the client receives the paper on time and they never miss the deadline. We understand that papers that are submitted late have some points deducted. We do not want you to miss any points due to late submission. We work on beating deadlines by huge margins in order to ensure that you have ample time to review the paper before you submit it.

Will anyone find out that I used your services?

We have a privacy and confidentiality policy that guides our work. We NEVER share any customer information with third parties. Noone will ever know that you used our assignment help services. It’s only between you and us. We are bound by our policies to protect the customer’s identity and information. All your information, such as your names, phone number, email, order information, and so on, are protected. We have robust security systems that ensure that your data is protected. Hacking our systems is close to impossible, and it has never happened.

How our Assignment  Help Service Works

1.      Place an order

You fill all the paper instructions in the order form. Make sure you include all the helpful materials so that our academic writers can deliver the perfect paper. It will also help to eliminate unnecessary revisions.

2.      Pay for the order

Proceed to pay for the paper so that it can be assigned to one of our expert academic writers. The paper subject is matched with the writer’s area of specialization.

3.      Track the progress

You communicate with the writer and know about the progress of the paper. The client can ask the writer for drafts of the paper. The client can upload extra material and include additional instructions from the lecturer. Receive a paper.

4.      Download the paper

The paper is sent to your email and uploaded to your personal account. You also get a plagiarism report attached to your paper.

smile and order essaysmile and order essay PLACE THIS ORDER OR A SIMILAR ORDER WITH US TODAY AND GET A PERFECT SCORE!!!

order custom essay paper