In soil, nutrients are absorbed by cation exchange and pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) by root hairs into the soil with the help of proton pumps.
The cations present in the soil particles (anions) are displaced by the hydrogen ions. Thus, the cations are freely available to take up by roots.
The root hairs are the most important part of plants for nutrient uptake and absorption.
The amount of nutrient absorption depends on the architecture and structure of root hairs.
The nutrients should reach the conducting tissues such as xylem and phloem. Hence, these nutrient ions are first transported to the center region of the root known as stele.
The uptake of nutrients is regulated by the Casparian strip that covers the stele and prevents the passive flow of nutrients.
Xylem conducts water and mineral salts and helps in their transportation from the root whereas, phloem conducts only the organic substances and transports them.
The water potential is crucial for nutrient uptake by plants.
For effective transport of solute, the water potential inside the plant should be highly negative compared to its surrounding soils, enabling the nutrients to move from the higher solute concentration region to the lower solute concentration region.
There are three fundamental ways in which plants obtain their nutrients:
1. Active transport: In this transport mechanism, Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is used as energy to push the ions and pump them through the cell membrane for the cells to take up ions against the gradient concentration formed.
2. Simple diffusion: The non-polar molecules such as NH3, O2, and CO2 move passively inside the cell lipid bilayer with the help of a concentration gradient. This does not require energy or transport proteins.
3.Facilitated diffusion: This movement of ions and nutrients is facilitated by the transport protein and their movement is rapid during the entry due to the concentration gradient formed.
Obtaining of fuel from absorbed nutrients by photosynthesis and cellular respiration:
Through photosynthesis, the light energy is transferred into chemical energy with the help of sunlight as a light source along with water and other nutrients.
This chemical energy acts as a fuel and used up by plants whenever required.
The energy stores in the form of sugars are synthesized with the help of water and carbon dioxide.
Light from the sun radiation is transferred by the unique pigment found in chloroplasts identified as chlorophyll.
During this process, carbon dioxide is converted into simple sugars by a process known as carbon fixation, which is an endothermic process.
Cellular respiration is opposite to photosynthesis during which, carbohydrates and absorbed nutrients (air or soil) are oxidized to carbon dioxide.
Cellular respiration occurs during the night whereas, photosynthesis occurs during the daytime.
Amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids are some of the nutrients used by cellular respiration.
The processing of carbon dioxide and water consists of the breakdown of these resources and releases molecular power to drive mitochondrial biogenesis in vegetation.
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